Ultimately, the successes of a business may ride on the successes and failures of the leaders – among a number of other factors, obviously. There's no all-purpose attitude to leading staff that'll be successful for all leaders in every instance, so based on a variety of issues, which might include a business' goals, its worker skill-level and the industry it's in, one type of leadership style might operate more productively than another.

There are 3 main types of leadership styles, categorised by psychologist Kurt Lewin. They are autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire leadership. Below we define what they are, their pros and cons, and when they are perhaps best implemented in the corporate world.

Autocratic Leadership

Autocratic leadership (a.k.a. authoritarian leadership) gives all control to the leaders, meaning that they are fully in charge of making the decisions. Therefore the leaders instruct the staff with the information on what needs to be done, whose recommendations might be shunned or simply ignored.

Pros: This particular type of leadership style works well in industries and companies where quick decision-making is key, where there is no time to consult with the staff for their involvement anyway. It is also effective on members of staff who mightn't hold the skills or the knowhow to look after their own individual workloads.
Cons: Employees might feel ignored and unimportant, which may affect motivation and employee satisfaction. Creativity could also be negatively affected, as employees are not given any room to be innovative.
Best used: When getting the job done in a particular way is much more important than creativity and staff participation.

Democratic Leadership

Democratic leadership (also known as participative leadership) is a style of leadership that grants some decision-making powers to the group, insofar as they're consulted and asked for their opinions by those in charge. In the end however, the leaders still have the overall decision-making powers.

Pros: Team members should feel more wanted, with the additional responsibility and the fact that their insights matter. This in turn will lead to a greater level of motivation.
Cons: With more people involved, decisions may take longer to implement. This might be ok when things can take time, but become more of an issue when decisions must be made in a rush.
Best used: When stuff doesn't need to get done straight away and creativity and innovation are essential factors.

Laissez-faire Leadership

Laissez-faire leadership (also known as delegative leadership) is a fairly relaxed leadership style, granting full decision-making control to the workers. It's pretty much up to them to sort out their workload, while the managers neither get in the way nor closely monitor what it is they're up to.

Pros: Staff will feel rather important with the high levels of responsibility, as they'll be given independence in what they do.
Cons: If the laissez-faire leadership style is used on someone who's not very good at managing their own work then productivity might crash. Also, there is the issue that the leadership team will appear to be lazy and that they do not want to be involved in the goings-on of the workplace.
Best used: When staff members are responsible enough to keep on top of their work, plus when their independence is a positive and beneficial factor, instead of them being told what they can and cannot do.

About the author:

Source: http://www.sooperarticles.com/self-improvement-articles/leadership-articles/leadership-styles-business-3-main-types-594871.html


3 main types of lupus

26 thoughts on “3 Main Types Of Lupus

  1. hoping for baby #1

    What does low WBC count, High Lymphocyte count and low neutrophil count mean?

    Ive been seeing a hematologist for a month now for my low WBC count and I want to make sense of these results because my doctor is very vague in giving me any answers!

    total WBC count is 2.6
    neutrophil count is 42 which is low (range: 48-75%)
    absolute neutrophil count is 1260L (range: 1500-7800)
    lymphocyte count is high at 45% (range: 17-40%).

    My other results were:
    RBC 3.93 (range 3.8-5.10)
    hemoglobin 12.2 (range 11.7-15.5)
    hematocrit 35.8 (range 35.0-45.0)
    MCV 31.1 (range 27.0–33.0)
    MCHC 34.2 (range 32.0-36.0)
    Monocytes 8 (range 0-14)
    Eosinophils 4 (range 0-5)
    Basophils 1 (range 0-3)
    Platelet Count 218 (range 140-400)
    Absolute Lymphocyte count 1350 (range 850-3900)
    absolute monocyte count 240 (range 200-950)
    absolute eosinophil count 120 (range 15-550)
    absolute basophil count 30 (range 0-200)
    red cell distribution width 13.1 (range 11.0-15.0)
    mean platelet volume 9.5 (range 7.5-11.5)

    He had me get an evaluation panel done which he said will break up my WBC and see where the mutation is, what does this mean?? It is a test done by flow cytometry?? PLEASE TRANSLATE IN REGULAR WORDS FOR ME!! I am freaking out and just want some answers..anyone have this? Also, my husband and I have been TTC for 10 months now, with one miscarriage at 11weeks..would this have anything to do with not being able to conceive? Thanks in advance..
    I had a flow cytometry test done on Friday 9/19/08. I think when he said mutation he meant of my cells the way they are forming, but im still not sure what this means.

    1. COUNTRY--GIRL

      Low white Blood Count this is part of the immune system to fight off disease infections and germs.
      Neutrophils and Lymphocytes are types of white blood cells. Abnormal low levels of WBC can cause increased risk for infections.Abnormal low levels of neutrophils can be due to leukemia , infection of bone marrow,radiotherapy and medicines. Abnormally high levels of lymphocytes can be due to flu, chicken pox, and some viral and bacterial infection. Some types of leukemia also increase the lymphocy tests. Abnormally high RDW is mesured by MCV vales high levels of RDW and MCV can be due to liver disease, hemolytic anemia and iron deficiency, thalessemia and B12 deficiency (RDW red cell distribution width). Lymphocytosis abnormal increase in the number of lymphocytes (type of white blood cell). Normal count (ALC) of 1.300 to 4.ooo over this indicates lymphocytosis. This Is NOT a DISEASE!!!but a sign of another cause or under lying problem. Could be mononucleosis, influenza, whooping cough. Neutrophil ia a type of mature white blood cell. These work to protect the body from disease and infections by removeing and distroying some types of bacteria, waste, foreigen substances and other cells. They do this by eating these substances. They are the main type white blood cells for this purpose. These are made by the bone marrow. About 50 to 70 percent of white blood cells are neutrophils. If number is lower than 1500 this is knowen as neutropenia this could be leukemia, could also be damaged to bone marrow,also could besystemic lupus or could be hypersplenism. You may have B-cells T-cells and NK-cells iin blood.Flow cytometry is used to find out if CLL is causing the high lymphocyte count it also shows if the CLL is B-cell or T-cell may need more tests this is called immunophenotyping.Many people with CLL feel well and live for years with good health. There is no cure for this, but there are several treatments for this.Treatments slow the pilling up of CLL cells protect people from infections and provide a better health (treatments)
      You need to discuss all of this with your doctor and find out what’s going on with your WBC and have him/her tell you all the info Any of this COULD be the Problem???? Sorry to read this and do hope you find out why and what.

  2. Lost92

    Twitter Bullies need to go…?
    What can I do about adult women who spend 8-10 hours a day harassing, and cyber-stalking on Twitter and blogs? (A group of women in their 40’s and 50’S) They have been reported to Twitter support multiple times, but due to the inefficient TOS and complete disinterest in user safety – Twitter has yet to rid their site of this type of behavior. “They are not in violation of TOS.” These people have posted first, last, maiden, husbands, and minor children’s names all over the internet. They have gone so far as to call one mothers 10 year old child (with Asperger’s) a retard. And when that mom reacted to the horrible remarks, she was labeled a drug addict using her real name. First and Last. They threatened to call the DEA on a nurse (tweeter) as they fabricated a story that she tweeted about stealing a patience medications and mailing them to another tweeter. Also using her full real name. That cannot be erased from the Internet. They have called people’s homes at all hours of the night. They have tweeted phone numbers for all of twitter to see and use. The main person they harass is an elderly woman who suffers with lupus. While the other women have left twitter to get away from the abuse, this woman stands firm that she will not be abused into leaving. She is a fighter. But she is also being tormented beyond belief. The bullies impersonated this woman’s husband and posted her on cheaterville with a vile story about cheating. It involved bodily fluids. They have contacted her husband at work. They have posted his business number all over the Internet. These women are not your typical Internet-bullies. They have invaded the personal lives of strangers. I am one of the women who left the website… over 3 months ago. I checked in a few days ago to find they’re still harassing the same people and they are still talking about me. First of all, social deviants shouldn’t have the power to control which websites people join. They should be banned. Period. But instead, they are controlling people. They are left to run rampant and to destroy people’s lives. Their real lives. (while we hide out. sick)
    If someone calls my screenname a stupid, druggie, I can look the other way. But these people are out to destroy reputations. Cause harm to people in their personal lives.
    They have tried to justify their behavior using reverse harassment for over 2 years. They also say they can’t harass/bully anyone, because we aren’t children. I beg to differ. If we were dealing with children, we could get this under control. Because these people are older adults who think they know it all, they will never see the light. They’re dangerous.

    The question I have is, what can be done about people who have nothing better to do than to torment strangers on twitter?

  3. brown eyes

    Is this the same as urinary incontinence??
    I am having a problem with urine leakage. When this happens it is NOT in large amounts. If I would have to guess, I would say probobly about 2-3 table spoons (give or take). It is NOT thick leakage, it is thin leakage like urine, and it smells like urine (yes I checked my underware because I was worried). This often happens when I cough or sneeze, but also throughout my day when I am not coughing or sneezing, I could just be sitting there watching tv and the leakage happens, or walking through the store and it happens. I’ve noticed the past few weeks that it happens at night when I’m sleeping, not every night though.
    I always feel like my bladder is full, even within about 5-10 minutes after emptying my bladder.
    Are these symtoms the same as urinary incontinence?
    I do plan on seeing my dr. for this, I’ve already made an appointment, however they can’t get me in until 2nd week of february.

    I have lupus (sle) and pcos, I don’t know if these are complications of that.

    1. Lifesnadir

      There are 2 main types of urinary incontinence.

      1. Stress incontinence (no, not stressed out) — this is where a force like coughing or sneezing put stress on the bladder and muscles, much the same as bearing down to have a bowel movment.

      2. Passive leakage – does not require a “stress” on the bladder

      Feeling like you have not completely emptied can be a symptom of infection, muscles not contracting the bladder completely, or from interstitial cystitis. Also alcohol and drugs, or side effects of meds can interfere & cause women to retain urine (incomplete emptying). Pressure from pregnancy, a cyst or other growth can also put pressure on the bladder & other structures.

      If there is no infection or treatable condition, most docs recommend Kegel exercises.

      Meds may include:

      antibiotics

      anticholinergics (e,g Ditropan)

      bladder instillations of liquid meds by catheter

      Visit a gynecologist for the most help.

      To protect clothing & feel “cleaner,” especially when going out or at nighttime, wear thick absorbant menstrual pads, like Stayfree Extra Long (or any thick brand).

      Lifes

  4. b-E-C-C-a

    Stomach pain won’t go away, please help!?
    i am 16 years old, I have had stomach pains for about 3 weeks now. I have an appetite but my stomach hurts after I eat. I feel nauseous but never throw up. I also have sharp pains on the upper right side. I had an ultrasound and they said everything was normal, so what could it be?!

    1. alejandro

      if your stomach hurts after eating could be some things

      Gallstones, commonly known as gallstones or cholelithiasis are accretions of solids that form in the gallbladder. They can be as small as grains of sand or, in exceptional cases, so large that fill the entire vesicle. Most, however, are usually of intermediate size, ie less than 20 mm, approximately one inch.

      There are two main types of gallstones:

      The cholesterol, composed mostly of this substance, which represent about 80% of all cases diagnosed in the United States.
      The pigment, consisting mostly of calcium salts of bile pigments and other compounds, which account for the remaining 20% ​​of diagnosed cases.

      Since most patients have cholesterol stones, they can be treated without resorting to surgery. The kind of calculation is important because only cholesterol stones can be treated by nonsurgical methods.
      If one of these small stones obstructing the cystic duct or common bile duct, then you will experience a sharp pain in the abdomen that is an abdominal colic, also known as biliary colic. The pain is located in the middle of the abdomen to the top of abodmen. A characteristic symptom is that your stomach hurts after eating, pain may spread to the back. The pain is oscillanting, show and then leaves.

      Another symptoms

      fever
      Yellowing of the skin
      jaundice
      Fullness
      nausea
      vomiting

      Gallstones often cause that your stomach hurts after eating or drinking.

      Pancreatitis

      If your stomach hurts after eating a large meal or five to twelve hours after is probably pancreatitis which is the inflammation of the pancreas.. The pain is severe, located in the superior part of the stomach.

      Between the most frequent Symptoms of the pancreatitis are: your stomach hurts and it could radiate towards the back or the thorax, nauseas, vomits, acceleration of the pulse, fever, inflammation of the part superior of the abdomen, flowed accumulation of in the abdominal cavity, diminution of the sanguineous pressure and yellow color of the skin and eyes. Among others.

      Most common causes of pancreatitis or common

      Gallstones that block the pancreatic duct. The most common in countries with high rates of gallstones.
      Abundant, copious intake of fat.
      Abuse of alcohol, which can lead to blockage of small pancreatic ducts.

      Other causes of pancreatitis

      Abdominal trauma or surgery
      renal
      hypercalcemia
      lupus
      Infections such as mumps, hepatitis A, hepatitis B and salmonella
      cystic fibrosis
      Presence of a tumor
      Sting of wasps, bees and African scorpion
      Some drugs such as isoniazid, furosemide, some steroids, antihistamines

  5. Maggie

    What is the cause of arthritis?
    What leads to arthritis in the joints? What can you do to prevent it? and when is it “too late for your joints?…

  6. BBALL PLAYER 24KOBE

    Is this a good diet or needs some changing?
    With 16% body fat I have decided to go on a diet to lose that 4-6%body fat. So I have been eating really healthy lately for like a week or two.

    My diet consists of salad(lettuce,carrots, radish,broccoli, etc.) with ranch, fruits like oranges,apples,strawberries, etc. and if i get a little hungry I take protein shake for meal replacement. And in the morning cereal like rasin bran, Kashi go lean crunch. if i ever go eat outside i eat subway veggie delite. I also take some vitamin tablets to get my daily vitamins as well.

    Is this a good diet or need to change it a little. If so how should i change it… If I am on a football team will that provide me with good cardio with practices twice a week. i also workout 3 times a week. I just need to get down to 10-12% body fat. If u have any experience please do tell me. how long would this goal take to accomplish usually.

    Thanks for all your help and support!!!
    I’m a vegeterian…get my protein from beans and shakes.

    1. Stevie

      Type 3. “Focal proliferative nephritis”. In this type of glomerulonephritis, the membrane in the kidney filter is thickened, and the cells supporting the filters are inflamed and overgrown. However this change affects only part of each kidney filter, and indeed many filters may not be affected at all.
      This type of kidney disease in Lupus is intermediate in severity. Some people do require treatment with steroids and more powerful immunosuppressants, other people can have more gentle drug treatment. A long period of follow up in clinic is required, as there is a risk of this disease becoming active in the future, when more powerful treatment may be required. Many people with focal proliferative nephritis have good kidney function for many years, but there is a risk of kidney failure. There may be water retention in the body due to nephrotic syndrome

  7. I ♥ my dog

    what causes arthritis? 10 pts?
    some people told me that if i pop your fingers a lot , then there’s a high chance i can get arthritis when i get older. is this true?

    1. ★☆✿❀

      The term arthritis describes over 100 different conditions. It basically means inflammation/fire of the joint.

      There are three main ones.
      The first is osteoarthritis, which caused by wear and tear of the joints.
      The second is autoimmune arthritis, which includes Rheumatoid Arthritis, Lupus, Psoriatic Arthritis and many more. It’s caused by an over active immune system.
      The third is crystal arthritis, the most common type is gout. It’s caused by increased levels of uric acid.

      You can also get septic arthritis (infection in the joint) or reactive arthritis (following a bowel infection or STD).

      Being a female, you’re most at risk of the first two.

      Almost everyone will get osteoarthritis eventually. It’s caused by wear and tear of the joints, so as we get older, put strain on our joints or injure a joint often we increase the risk of this type of arthritis. It usually affects one joint, like a knee or a hip. Usually it’s only the joint that’s affected.

      The autoimmune arthritides can occur at any age. The condition Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis affects those under the age of 18. My friend was diagnosed at 8 months old. It usually affects people in their 20s-50s. It’s caused by an immune system that thinks its own tissue is a foreign body and begins to attack it. People with these types of arthritis usually experience fatigue and often have organ involvement (yes arthritis affects the organs), in children most commonly the eyes, in Lupus most commonly the kidneys and Rheumatoid Arthritis, the heart and lungs. It affects joints symmetrically, so both knees, both wrists.

      Cracking/popping your joints DOES NOT increase the risk of arthritis.

      The best way to avoid arthritis is by not smoking, eating a healthy diet, plenty of oily fish or Omega 3 tablets, look after your joints, exercise regularly and keep your weight within a normal range and know your family history. The autoimmune arthritides tend to run in families.

      I hope that’s helped and I haven’t just overwhelmed you.

      …..

  8. sweetgal2301

    Well stem cells …… SC differ from other kinds of cells in the body. Regardless of their source, they are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods. Although they are unspecialized, they can give rise to specialized types of cells (i.e. muscle, red blood, brain).

    there are two kinds …. embryonic stem cells (ESC) and adult stem cells (ASC).

    ESC are derived from embryos that develop from eggs that have been fertilized in vitro, in an in vitro fertilization clinic. They are donated for research purposes with informed consent of the donors. They are not derived from eggs fertilized in a woman’s body – a common misconception.

    ASC are undifferentiated, found among differentiated cell types in a tissue or organ. ASC can renew themselves, and can differentiate to yield the major specialized cell types of the tissue or organ. Their primary role in a living organism is to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found.

    since ESC cells can be used to differntiate into any type of cell, its considered that these are the best stem cells to use for 1. transplantation and studies.
    2. information about the cause for many diseases
    3. new and better treatment possibilities, potential cures for many medical conditions

    Simply put, those who support human embryonic stem cell research believe it could lead to possible cures for many diseases, including:
    Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Lupus
    Scleroderma
    Diabetes
    Parkinson’s disease
    Alzheimer’s disease
    Heart disease
    Cancer
    Spinal cord injuries

    Reason Against
    One of the main objections to embryonic stem cell research has to do with the belief that using embryos tampers with life. People who stand strong behind this ideology believe that even for the purpose of medical research and the possibility of saving lives, it is wrong. For people who oppose embryonic stem cell research it is a matter of ethics and morals which outweigh the scientific potential.

    There is no guarantee that forging ahead with embryonic stem cell research will produce the desired results. That, too, is a problem for some who oppose it. The utilization of embryonic stem cells, is at this point theoretical, unlike adult stem cells which have shown therapeutic results.

    Where it Stands
    Understanding this issue before formulating an opinion is imperative. Stem cell research is a complicated issue, without doubt. Further investigation regarding the scientific and ethical viewpoints can only result in being more informed and knowledgeable, and the assurance that you are standing on the side of the issue which most strongly aligns with your beliefs.

    As for cloning human beings …. religious acts belief that god creates man and that we should ethically give god the creative power and not us scientists. Plus clones were supposed to be made so that the real person could use the organs when needed … whcih is once again unethical since we are killing someone to save someone. But human cloning is so far away that I don’t think we can even think about it at this time.

  9. Anonymous

    Buy or not to buy? Estee Lauder DayWear Advanced Multi-Protection Anti-Oxidant SPF 15 Lotion?
    I have really oily skin an i have been looking for a good moisturizer/lotion with spf in to use day and night.

    I have tried lots of low end and high end brands of skin care… i have bought a lot and tried a lot of samples and this is the first one that i have liked i have not tried it long term because i only got the sample but after 3 days of using it i really liked it on my skin.

    So my question is…. is Estee Lauder DayWear Advanced Multi-Protection Anti-Oxidant SPF 15 Lotion worth buying, has anyone had long term experience with it and and what are your opinions?

    1. Sur La Mer

      Not to buy. I use very little (not even a dime size portion) moisturizer 2x a week, or none.

      As you’ve experienced, low end & high end brands of skin care didn’t do the job for you. It is a billion dollar business, and if you want to wear protection that is 90% protection from the sun, wear a wide brim hat. Sometimes just the oil on your face from make up and lotions, even from your hair can travel to your face causing acne to come out. Others, from stress, hormones & diet or foods. Less is best to avoid product poisoning. Example: Elizabeth Taylor. Google her when she’s younger & Google her now that’s she’s older.There are many others who hardly wear makeup, on none of those store bought protection and they have beautiful skin until their old age. The main idea is to preserve the skin as youthful as possible, by programming yourself to take better care of your skin, starting from grade school. Number one rule is to stay out of the sun. I’ve been doing that since age 9. No matter, I still got Discoid Lupus, caused from the sun. Using my wide brim hat, the sun can still go through. Umbrella is the next best thing to UV rays. Gene Simmons & Shannon were seen using one at an outdoor event.

      The function of the FDA is to monitor new drugs, such as anti aging products, entering into the marketplace and ensure that they are safe and effective. Unfortunately, many anti aging skin care products as well as other anti aging products use wild and exaggerated claims in their marketing materials. According to the FDA, a big controversy with some of the advertising are claims that anti aging products will rejuvenate or repair or restructure the skin. These types of claims lead to speculation that the product is causing structural changes to the skin. If this is true, these products should be classified as drugs and should be removed from the market until the FDA has approved them. Conversely, if these claims are not true, the companies should stop claiming these features for their products. In the past, the FDA has sent regulatory letters to the cosmetic companies making these types of claims informing them that they may be in violation of federal laws.

      The anti aging product market is one of the biggest markets in the United States. Each year consumers spend billions of dollars on unproven anti aging products in an attempt to slow down the aging process. The FDA as well as others consider this a danger because taking an unproven and untested product could very easily cause near or long term damage to someone.
      While there are dozens of high-end brands, experts say many low-cost brands are just as effective. Moreover, many cosmetic firms are owned by the same parent company, so the exclusive label that makes high-end brands may be affiliated with the maker of more downscale products. For example, L’Oreal owns Maybelline, Lancome and Biotherm; Estee Lauder owns Clinique, Prescriptives and Origins; Almay is owned by Revlon. Experts say there’s little need to spend three or four times more for a department-store moisturizer unless you particularly like its feel or scent.
      However, under the current laws, the FDA is limited in its ability to oversee and enforce the claims made for anti aging products by manufacturers . The FDA is also limited by funding and political concerns in its ability to independently conduct the large studies that are sometimes necessary to test the claims made regarding these products. So, more than ever before it’s up to the consumer to do his or her own investigation regarding any anti aging claims made for products that they may be interested in taking.

      A perfect example is Botox, or botulinum toxin A. The FDA approved a Botox product that would temporarily improve the appearance of frown lines. Yet, many feel that this was an ill advised move. The fact that it is a toxin that in large doses can be fatal and if used excessively may even harm nerves. With so many Americans enamored of using products to make them look more beautiful or younger we can expect hundreds more anti aging products to hit the shelves in the coming years. And there is simply no way that the FDA will be able to adequately test them all.

      So even though an FDA approved product does not necessarily mean that an anti-aging product is safe or that it works as advertised, the FDA sign of approval is a point in its favor.

  10. Beewally

    match these questions please…?
    Hemophilia
    thymus
    bone marrow
    communicable disease
    red blood cells
    white blood cells
    platelets
    spleen
    disease
    inherited disease
    acquired disease
    immune system
    pathogen
    llymph nodes
    down syndrome
    leukocytes
    b-cells
    natural killer cells
    dendritic cells
    phagocytosis
    pus
    acquired immunity
    passibe immunity
    immunodeficiency disorder
    SCID
    autoimmune disorder
    lupus
    lymphoma and leukemia
    acute stress
    chronic stress

    1: Principle upon which childhood vaccination is based.
    2: Researchers think that these cells are responsible for transmitting HIV to T-cells in order to activate an immune system
    3: Filters antigens out of the blood; acts as the immune system’s cleaning agent.
    4: Small, bean-shaped clusters that also helps filter the body’s infection fighting system
    5: The result of a sudden or uncontrollable thing such as a natural disaster, or surgical procedure.
    6: Main function is the production of antibodies in response to antigens such as bacteria, viruses, and tumor cells.
    7: Carries oxygen throughout the body.
    8: White blood cells.
    9: Produces T-cells which are responsible for immunity and disease resistance.
    10: Means that all or part of the immune system is unable to properly respond to the presence of an antigen.
    11: A white or yellowish fluid that forms from a collection of dead tissue, dead bacteria, and live and dead phagocytes.
    12: A condition caused by an abnormal chromosome.
    13: A disease that is passed through the genes froom parent to child.
    14: Caused by an inherited abnormal gene.
    15: An acquired disease that is contagious.
    16: The interuption or disorder to normal body functions.
    17: When the immune system cannot distinguish between normal body tissue and antigens and launches an attack against the normal tissue.
    18: Types of Autoimmune Disorders.
    19: Involves antibodies that are produced in someone’s body otherthan your own. Protection is temporary.
    20: A process by which leukocytes known as phagocytes consume microorganisms and dead or dying cells.
    21: Caused by infection, human behaviors, or environmental conditions that affect health.
    22: Performs much like T-cells, only they directly kill tumor cells.
    23: Infection fighting cells.
    24: The body’s defense system against disease.
    25: A birth defect that results in a lack of both T- and B- lymphocytes and you are unable to fight infection. Also known as the “Bubble Boy Disease.”
    26: Produes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
    27: A disease causing organism.
    28: It’s daily and on-going – such as lack of sleep, long-term physical pain, and day-to-day hassles such as traffic.
    29: General types of cancer hat can happen to the immune system.
    30: Cells which help the blood to clot.

  11. hey278

    Secrets to perfect skin?
    Everyone seems to have their own little trick on how they keep their skin looking flawless… what’s yours?

    I’m asking because I cannot seem to get rid of the acne on my face. It started after I used Differin, which ended up destroying my forehead. It’s slowly clearing up as I’m using a Neutrogena face wash … but do any of you have some tips to make my pores dissappear unleashing smooth, glowing skin?

    Thanks 🙂

    1. Juicy

      Hi,
      Good question. My personal secerts are drink plenty of water. It seriously helps. Make sure you are drinking 8 glasses a day. It might seem like a lot but it won’t when you get use to it.

      Millions of Americans suffer from acne and other skin blemishes, and everyone is on the lookout for great tips to clear skin.

      Instead of hiding your face, strive to clear up your facial problems and show it off with pride.

      There are thousands of reasons why skin blemishes appear on the surface of your skin, so the key to clearing your skin is to find the root of the problem.

      Things like diet, drug interactions, and medical conditions can cause your skin to become rebellious.

      Most likely, hormonal changes (usually experienced by teenagers and pregnant women) are the key to acne.

      When your hormones change, your pores are more likely to over-produce oils that can trigger a series of reactions that will soon result in pimples and blackheads.

      If you are trying to keep your skin clear, consider these easy tips to clear skin :

      1. Clean Your Skin

      Although acne and other skin blemishes are not caused by poor hygiene, you should strive to keep your skin clean. The main problem that causes zits and blackheads is oil.

      For all intensive purposes, oil is your enemy. Your skin care products should not contain any type of oil, since you are only worsening your problem.

      Since oil is produced in your pores, you should use products that are capable of getting in the pore and clearing the oil away.

      Wash your face at least once a day and be sure to remove any makeup that add to the oil problem and further clog pores.

      There are tons of cleaners on the market, so choose a specific item that will fit your skin type and needs.

      2. Exfoliate Your Skin

      If oil is your enemy, then consider dead skin oil’s right hand man.

      Oil works together with dead skin cells to create a substance that works to clog your pores.

      Even though you are cleaning the oil out of your pores, the problem will still persist if you fail to remove the dead skin cells.

      Your skin cells reproduce at an alarming rate, and the new skin cells work to push out the old cells.

      You can easily remove the dead skin cells by exfoliating your skin on a regular basis.

      Remember, your exfoliant does not have to be painful or harsh, as gentle scrubs tend to work better than the rough stuff.

      Avoid scrubs that contain nuts or seeds, since they can potentially tear and scratch the skin, potentially creating more problems.

      3. Heal From Within

      Banish that blemish by eating healthy and drinking plenty of water. In addition to creating a better overall sense of health, you will make your skin flawless and glowing.

      Consume plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables.

      Eat these healthy goodies raw in order to preserve the highest amount of vitamins and nutrients.

      Avoid excess fats and sugars, both of which can case problems for your skin. Instead of frying, consider baking or grilling. Drink at least eight eight-ounce glasses of water each day to maintain proper hydration.

      4. Seek Medical Advice

      Since many skin blemishes and acne are caused by a deeper problem that just bad skin, you may need to seek medical advice to find the real problem.

      Instead of continuing to battle bad skin, consult your primary health care provider in order to determine the actual root of the problem.

      Medical conditions like lupus and thyroid conditions can cause your skin to break out into pimples and blackheads.

      Since these problems are capable of being controlled with the proper medical attention, you can work to clear up your skin and become healthier in all aspects in your life.

      Hope I could help! Good luck 🙂

  12. Amelia

    Signs of depression in a 11 yr old girl?
    Hi… My friend is having a stressful time at home, her Mum has been diagnosed with Lupus (a disease where I think they can have kidney failure or a heart attack at any time) and she prefers much more to be alone, but she still hangs around with people because she is afraid of being called a ‘geek’ (stupid bullies, how can they bully her at this time!?) and so yeah I just a bit worried about her… I’ve known her since I was little, and although I’m 13, she’s like a sister to me. I would like you to be honest… If you are, I will get help for her. Councillor etc. But the thing I think she is worried about is that if anyone finds out, we might tell her Mum… Because she knows her Mum is having a rough time right now… Please help, I don’t know if she is depressed, but it seems to be the early stages to me. D’:

    1. Matthew

      Depression does have different stages, however they vary depending on the person.

      The “Downward Spiral of Depression” looks like this:

      At the to of the spiral (step 1): Negative thinking
      (step 2): Negative Memories
      (step 3): Isolation/Withdrawal
      At the bottom (step 4): Weak ADL’s (Average Daily Living Skills)

      Note- that these steps or levels can combine with one another and there are more specific symptoms within those main categories.

      If your friend is having bad thoughts about herself, shutting out people in her life, keeping to herself, etc. , or even if you are unsure, it doesn’t hurt to have your friend see a therapist or some type of mental health specialist. It is important to catch the illness at earlier stages and start treatment right away if needed, before it gets worse.

      Good luck all the best.

  13. beterraba9

    Low WBC, Low Neutrophils, High Lymphocytes….?
    I have been having lots of gas and bloating for some time now, with frequent BMs, stomach/intestinal cramping, fatigue, occasional hives-like rash (only a few times). I feel like this after all meals, and instead of feeling hungry, I also feel somewhat nauseous. My PCP ran some blood work, and for the most part it seems normal.

    My main concern is my WBC count is slightly low at 3.9, along with the neutrophils at 54 and elevated lymphocytes at 37. I have not any flus or colds in at least a year. My ALP is also slightly low at 33, and my transferrin is slightly low at 216. I’ve been supplementing iron citrate 25mg TID. My ferritin rose from 12 to 20 in 4 months. B12 is 420, Folate is 10.6. I am awaiting my Vitamin D results.

    Any ideas would be greatly appreciated!

    1. Human-Species

      Low white Blood Count this is part of the immune system to fight off disease infections and germs.
      Neutrophils and Lymphocytes are types of white blood cells. Abnormal low levels of WBC can cause increased risk for infections.Abnormal low levels of neutrophils can be due to leukemia , infection of bone marrow,radiotherapy and medicines. Abnormally high levels of lymphocytes can be due to flu, chicken pox, and some viral and bacterial infection. Some types of leukemia also increase the lymphocy tests. Abnormally high RDW is mesured by MCV vales high levels of RDW and MCV can be due to liver disease, hemolytic anemia and iron deficiency, thalessemia and B12 deficiency (RDW red cell distribution width). Lymphocytosis abnormal increase in the number of lymphocytes (type of white blood cell). Normal count (ALC) of 1.300 to 4.ooo over this indicates lymphocytosis. This Is NOT a DISEASE!!!but a sign of another cause or under lying problem. Could be mononucleosis, influenza, whooping cough. Neutrophil ia a type of mature white blood cell. These work to protect the body from disease and infections by removeing and distroying some types of bacteria, waste, foreigen substances and other cells. They do this by eating these substances. They are the main type white blood cells for this purpose. These are made by the bone marrow. About 50 to 70 percent of white blood cells are neutrophils. If number is lower than 1500 this is knowen as neutropenia this could be leukemia, could also be damaged to bone marrow,also could besystemic lupus or could be hypersplenism. You may have B-cells T-cells and NK-cells iin blood.Flow cytometry is used to find out if CLL is causing the high lymphocyte count it also shows if the CLL is B-cell or T-cell may need more tests this is called immunophenotyping.Many people with CLL feel well and live for years with good health. There is no cure for this, but there are several treatments for this.Treatments slow the pilling up of CLL cells protect people from infections and provide a better health (treatments)
      You need to discuss all of this with your doctor and find out what’s going on with your WBC and have him/her tell you all the info Any of this COULD be the Problem???? Sorry to read this and do hope you find out why and what

  14. Sammistar24

    hands/fingers feel swollen, but don’t look swollen?
    I’m 23 years old, and I’ve always been a healthy, active person until this summer. I started losing my hair (no hair loss in my fam) so I went to see my dermatologist and he diagnosed it as telogen effluvium and said it will come back. Well, regardless of it being temporary, I’m young so I freaked out and soon enough started developing autoimmune type of symptoms (lupus, specifically). Now I’m having arthritis symptoms! I see my internist and a couple of specialists (neurologist, rheumatologist, dermatologist). and they can’t find anything wrong with me specifically after many blood tests. I had an MRI of the brain/spine and that came back normal with minor arthritis in my neck, and I’ve had a NCV test which showed I may have slight carpel tunnel. I have no pain though! I wake up in the mornings and my fingers feel swollen but they don’t really look swollen (I think). Is this CTS even though I don’t have pain? I get new symptoms all the time like chest pains, back pains, tingling, skin changes (non-raised or itchy rash, easy wrinkling – almost like thinning, etc.). I’ve been super stressed and anxious since my hair started falling out so is there a chance all these symptoms could be brought on my severe stress? That’s what my internist seems to think, but maybe it’s just because they can’t find anything wrong in the tests! My neurologist told me to sleep with wrist splints and see if that helps. I will be seeing an endocrinologist later this month and she’ll do a more thorough test for thyroid and I suppose diabetes, even though I’ve already been tested for all that.

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