Cotinine is a metabolic of nicotine, used to measure the grade of tobacco smoking. According to National Survey On Drug Use 2007, overall 68 million people abuse tobacco, and more than 3.5 million teens abuse tobacco between 12-17 years. Detection of smoke levels present in the body is possible with help of Cotinine test. Cotinine levels describe the level of smoke in the body.

Cotinine abuse
Cotinine abuse is similar to any illicit drug abuse. Cotinine is major metabolite of nicotine. Cotinine is present in nicotine, and smoked in cigarettes, chewed, and sniffed. When nicotine is metabolized, it gradually builds the level of cotinine in the body of both habitual smokers, and regular smokers. This drug is popular among teens because it is available in colorful packages with flavor choices to abuse. Cotinine itself is not harmful but nicotine is harmful, and has many adverse effects on the health of the abuser.

Test for cotinine
Cotinine effects are present in body for 20 hours from the time of consumption. Cotinine levels can be detected using various methods like gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Cotinine can be detectable from days to one week after tobacco abuse. Cigarette preference, menthol, puff size, and many other factors influence the detection period of cotinine using different testing types. Different persons have different levels of cotinine in the body with regular smoking. One way to reduce the cotinine levels in the body is to stop smoking.

Immunoassay technology used for detecting illicit drugs, can detect cotinine substance in body. Detection period of cotinine from specimen is four days after consumption. Cotinine retains in the blood for long period after consumption through smoking. There are many methods used for detecting cotinine. One of the preferred method is urine drug testing. Cotinine testing through saliva drug testing is difficult both in terms of collecting the specimen as well as drug detection. Using testing kits, testing process of cotinine is simple, and easy to perform at home. Often, lab confirmation tests are used to test cotinine levels for accurate results.

The above information gives you an overview about cotinine abuse, and testing methods. Cotinine drug testing makes it easier to detect presence of nicotine, and its metabolism presence in body.

About the author:

Source: http://www.sooperarticles.com/health-fitness-articles/drugs-articles/know-about-cotinine-drug-testing-82841.html


blood test results explained for lupus

23 thoughts on “Blood Test Results Explained For Lupus

  1. Beb

    What cancers cause low white platelets?
    I am a 50 yr.old black female. Went to the doctor because of a bald spot in the back of my head the size of a silver dollar (Alopecia areata). I was given blood test that eliminated Lupus & Hiv. Then a bone marrow biopsy that was negative.
    What could all of this mean?

    1. Spreedog

      I agree with “Pocket Protectorate” above in that I sense you will be fine.
      If your bone marrow biopsy was “negative” – you cannot have leukemia.
      There are no “white platelets.” I suspect you mean low white blood cells and low platelet counts. This can be due to a wide variety of factors from drugs (medications) to nutrition (B12 or Folate deficiency). The hematologist who did the bone marrow biopsy should be explaining this to you. This is part of our job.
      I’m glad you do not have HIV, Lupus, or leukemia.
      There are way too many explanations for an undefined decrease in white cells and platelets for us to analyze over the internet with such limited information.
      We need the entire CBC results, a look at the blood smear, a look at the bone marrow aspirate slides, and of course a complete history and physical examination. A person’s complete history is the most information in making diagnoses. You are allowed to ask these questions of the doctors who are providing your care and know all of the details of your case. Most of my time as a doctor in practice was spent explaining these things (and doing paperwork documenting that I had explained these things – lol).

  2. Alison S

    my son has yellow eyes and blood tests have shown an elavated bilirubin level and a low white blood cell count?
    what could he have? Gilberts syndrome? Does that affect white blood cell counts tho? He is otherwise ok, if not rather lazy but he is 15 so that might explain that!!

    1. izzy

      Did not the doctor who ordered the tests and gave you the results discuss the implications with you?
      A low WCC can leave a person open to infection.
      The main symptoms caused by a low white cell count include occasional fever, consistent chills, discomfort and a sore throat. Other symptoms include fatigue and weakness.
      You can get a low WCC after a viral infection.
      Some other causes of a low white count are aplastic anaemia (can be caused by infection, e.g. hepatitis viruses), autoimmune diseases such as lupus, liver diseases, spleen diseases, a deficiency of vitamins and minerals such as zinc and copper.

      A high level of bilirubin in your blood will make you jaundiced (‘yellow’). Bilirubin is made from haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is a chemical in red blood cells that is released when the red blood cells break down. Liver cells take in bilirubin and attach sugar molecules to it. This is then called ‘conjugated’ bilirubin which is passed into the bile ducts.
      A raised blood level of ‘conjugated’ bilirubin occurs in various liver and bile duct conditions. It is particularly high if the flow of bile is blocked. For example, by a gallstone stuck in the common bile duct.

      A raised level of ‘unconjugated’ bilirubin (bilirubin that has not been conjugated in the liver) occurs when there is excessive breakdown of red blood cells. For example, in haemolytic anaemia.

      Gilbert’s syndrome (unconjugated bilirbin) is determined by a particular liver enzyme, and the tendency for this to be slower in action can be passed on genetically. For this reason, it can be found more commonly in family members of someone who has the condition. Males are affected more often than females.
      It only shows increased bilirubin in the blood; other tests are normal so it’s usually easy for a doctor to make a diagnosis of Gilbert’s syndrome; further tests such as liver biopsy are not normally needed.
      There are no serious consequences of Gilbert’s syndrome, nor is it a condition needing treatment. People with the condition are usually discovered by chance when routine blood tests show a rise of the bilirubin level in the blood. It isn’t normally associated with a low white cell count

      It’s impossible to put your mind at rest and give a diagnosis. I hope your son improves soon and can only guess how worried you both must be. Try not to go reading the medical dictionary and scaring yourself further. Prepare a list of questions and talk to your doctor.

  3. SUDHA S

    recently doctor said that i have vasculities. i have numbness & burning sensation in certain parts of my body.
    recently doctor said that i have vasculities. i have numbness & burning sensation in certain parts of my body. can someone please explain about my disease.?

    1. medtranscript1

      4,500-10,000 white blood cells/mcL (cells per microliter)

      What abnormal results mean

      A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. It may be due but not limited to:

      * Bone marrow failure (for example, due to infection, tumor,
      or abnormal scarring)
      * Collagen-vascular diseases (such as lupus
      erythematosus)
      * Disease of the liver or spleen
      * Radiation exposure
      * HIV/AIDS exposure

      Also, drugs that may lower your WBC count include:

      * Antibiotics
      * Anticonvulsants
      * Antihistamines
      * Antithyroid drugs
      * Arsenicals
      * Barbiturates
      * Chemotherapy drugs
      * Diuretics
      * Sulfonamides

      You should get a full blood work-up, your physician can order one, and see what “low” is. It could be just a little low meaning most likely some minor issue. Your doctor will explain what the results of your blood test will be.

  4. --

    could the results of an open or closed MRI tel you if someone has one of theese diseasese/conditions?
    Poly Myalgia Rhumatica
    Thyroid disease
    celiac disease
    lupus
    anemia
    thyroid disorder
    diabetes
    black mold exposure
    dehydration

    and if you say yes, could you please explain as much as you know about that disease to me, please?

    please

    1. Jimmy Changa

      An MRI can only suggest thyroid cancer, none of the rest which are diagnosed by history, blood tests, and in the case of coeliac’s, sometimes a small bowel biopsy.

  5. Krystina

    Why are my red blood cells enlarged?
    First off, I am a 27-year-old female with no prior medical conditions expect for back and hip pain from several car accidents. I drink sparingly and I don’t do drugs, nor was I on any medication before this all started. I do, however, smoke (about a half to a pack a day).

    For two weeks now I have been in constant pain, ranging from mild to excruciating. It all started with left knee pain that was very sudden and shot up and down my leg. I went to the hospital and they suggested a Baker’s cyst.
    I saw a knee specialist two days later and he diagnosed me with PateloFemoral Syndrome and gave me a shot of cortisone in my knee. I was on crutches for 5 days. My knee finally started feeling better, to the point where I could walk around a while without crutches.
    Then on day 7, my left leg started twitching. I went to the knee specialist again and this time he diagnosed me with a pinched nerve. I thought “Great! I know what this is!”. Not that simple. The twitching soon progressed to my whole body. Then the pain started. All over muscle pain and twitching. Inside and out. My diaphram would twitch, causing me to hiccup (the only amusing part of this whole thing).
    I saw my Primary doctor 2 days later. She had no idea what was wrong, but by this time I had developed a deep cough and a stuffy nose. She took a bunch of blood, a urine sample, and a throat swab and an x-ray. She tested for Mono and Strep, both were negative. She also tested for lupus, rhumetoid, lyme, among others. She figured the cough was a result of Bronchitis and gave me Azithromyacin, but still didn’t have an answer to the twitching and pain.
    I’m still waiting for a nurse to call me to explain my blood test results. All I know is everything came back negative, but I have large red blood cells. I know this doesnt explain the pain and twitching, or does it? I am so confused and sick of being in constant pain. Please help!!

    Other symptoms:
    Fatigue
    Interrupted sleep
    Increased thirst
    Numbness & tingling
    Dizzyness
    Vomiting (from pain or dizzyness)

  6. B7

    Does anyone suffer from frequent sinusitis or upper respiratory infections?
    So, I have another sinus infection. In the last 12 months I’ve had 3 sinus infections, strep pneumonia twice and bronchitis once. Finally, I asked my doctor if something is wrong with my immune system and he ran an immunoglobulin blood test. My IgA level was 30 and normal range is 81-483. He said that explains the frequent infections. I have to see an immunologist in a couple of weeks.

    I’m scared to death. Some people have this low IgA who have leukemia and lupus! The dr said he wasn’t worried about that but I am. I’m 31,I’m not overweight, I don’t smoke and I don’t drink. Just a year and a half ago I went through a complete physical with tons of bloodwork because my husband and I took out very large life insurance policies. I got the best rate because all of my tests came back normal. Even the underwriter said results that good are rare. Could my health change that much in under 2 years? Only difference this year is I’ve been under tons of stress due to family problems.

    1. mindyourbreath

      Like you, I used to get sinus infections all the time. They ranged from making me feel a little lousy to full-blown stay-at-home illness. A couple years ago I started using a neti pot. It’s a method for cleansing your nasal passages with saline solution. The procedure felt a little strange at first, but I quickly got used it–especially since it felt great afterwards to be able to breathe through my nose so easily. I use it every day, and more often during cold or allergy season or when I travel. The one time I got a sinus infection in the last couple years was when I took a trip and forgot to bring my neti pot. Since then, I take it everywhere I take my toothbrush and use after brushing at night. I stopped taking antihistamines or sinus relief drugs and I sleep better, too.

      A number of sites online sell neti pots, and you can often find them in stores that sell herbal remedies. All you need is the neti pot and the non-iodized salt they sell for it. I also add a pinch of baking soda, but that’s optional.

      Check out the wikipedia entry below for more.

  7. A S

    Are the low or high blood test results indicating sickness or disease?
    lymphocyte percent is 17.1 – monocyte percent is 11.2 – eosinophil percent is 4.6 – monocyte absolute is 1.0×10 3ul –
    mpv is 6.1 FL – all the rest of the lab tests are within normal range.

    1. Sam

      Has your doctor explained the blood test results to you? I’m not sure why you just have these results without any explanation. Both low and high results indicate sickness or disease, depending on which they are – low white blood cells can indicate immunodeficiency while high can indicate infection or inflammatory disease (these are not comprehensive). WBCs are the lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. You abolute (I’m guessing total WBCs) are a little low they should be between 4 to 11×10 3ul. The lymphocyte percent is fine (should be 16-45%). Monocytes are slightly elevated (should be 4-10%) but that may not be significant. Your eosinophils are fine ( should be 0-7%). I’m not sure why you listed these – did they come up as not in the normal range on your blood results sheet? Your MPV is your mean platelet volume is slightly low it should be 7.5 – 11.5.
      Do you know what you are being tested for? Low MPV is usually fine unless there are other symptoms, yours isnt too low and supposedly a bunch of people fall outside the range. Technically if it were really low, it might be a blood or platelet disorder or just simply an iron deficiency., but yours is pretty close to normal, and if your doctor isn’t concered, you shouldn’t worry too much.
      The percentages of the WBCs seem normal but the overall number is not. Its pretty low.
      Medline Plus reads “A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. It may be due to:

      Bone marrow failure (for example, due to infection, tumor, or abnormal scarring)
      Collagen-vascular diseases (such as lupus erythematosus)
      Disease of the liver or spleen
      Radiation ”

      What you need to do is talk to your doctor.

  8. Sasha

    Blood Test Results-Question ABOUT ESR?
    My blood test came back everything seemed normal except my ESR was slightly high-the initial purpose was to see if i have lupus because i have been experiencing sudden joint pain-im 23 years old!!!
    Normal ESR for my age is 20 my results indicated my ESR is 22- can anyone explain this- i have an appt on friday with my gp, but just wanted to know what to expect

  9. Lece R.

    Why does the FDA ignore the dangers of aspartame/nutra-sweet?
    Why is aspartame still marketed around the US as if it’s as safe as mother’s milk if all the dangers have been pointed out???

    1. Ella L

      Because it IS safe. If it wasn’t then they wouldn’t be allowed to sell it. The “dangers” are outlined in this article from the American Cancer Society. This is a very reputable body, and it explains the risks and why they allow it in food. It also talk about the studies that the rumors of its danger sprang from.

      Animal studies in the 1970s found that rats could eat 4 grams of aspartame per kilogram of body weight without showing health problems. To be safe, the JECFA divided this dose by 100, and set the Acceptable Daily Intake of aspartame for humans at 40 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.

      The FDA, now has stated that the acceptable daily intake of aspartame for humans is 50 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.

      This is equivalent to 3500 milligrams per day for a typical 70-kilogram (about 150 pounds) adult, far more than most adults take in daily. For comparison, a can of diet soft drink contains about 180 milligrams of aspartame . So a typical adult could drink 19 cans of diet soft drink each day before going over the recommended level. A 30-kilogram (66 pounds) child would have to drink more than 8 cans of diet soda daily to reach the ADI for aspartame.

      Does Aspartame Cause Cancer?

      Soon after aspartame was introduced to the market, its safety was questioned. Its role in cancer risk has been widely debated over the last few decades. Concerns still exist today and studies continue to look at the safety of aspartame and other artificial sweeteners.

      As recently as April 2007, the FDA released this statement: “Considering results from the large number of studies on aspartame’s safety, including five previously conducted negative chronic carcinogenicity studies, a recently reported large epidemiology study with negative associations between the use of aspartame and the occurrence of tumors, and negative findings from a series of three transgenic mouse assays, FDA finds no reason to alter its previous conclusion that aspartame is safe as a general purpose sweetener in food.”

      What Do the Experts Say?

      Aspartame has been approved for use as a sweetener by the FDA and by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization, and the World Health Organization. They have concluded that aspartame does not cause cancer or other adverse health effects in the general population. Though research into a possible link between aspartame and cancer continues, no study to date has had results that change this conclusion.

      Does Aspartame Cause Any Other Health Problems?

      Phenylketonuria (PKU)

      People born with a rare genetic disorder called phenylketonuria or PKU cannot break down (metabolize) the amino acid phenylalanine. This amino acid occurs naturally and is found in aspartame. PKU is usually detected in babies by a routine blood test at birth. People with the disorder are placed on a phenylalanine-restricted diet and must avoid aspartame.

      Other Complaints

      The FDA received hundreds of complaints of various symptoms after aspartame was introduced. The most common symptoms were headache, dizziness, stomach (gastrointestinal) symptoms, and change in mood. Less often, seizures were reported. The symptoms did not follow any particular pattern and most were minor. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) concluded that “although it may be that certain individuals have an unusual sensitivity to the product, these data do not provide evidence for the existence of serious, widespread, adverse health consequences attendant to the use of aspartame.”

      Claims are still made that aspartame is related to numerous health effects including: Alzheimer disease, birth defects, cancer, diabetes, Gulf War syndrome, attention deficit disorders, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and seizures. However, there is very little scientific evidence to support these claims. Human exposure studies done to date, in which volunteers eat known quantities of aspartame, have not shown any evidence of harm.

      Methanol, one of the breakdown products of aspartame, is toxic to humans when large doses are eaten and could possibly cause blindness and even death. However, the amount of methanol produced when aspartame is broken down is minimal and well below the level that is a risk to human health.

  10. Cherry C

    I’m not sure as yet but based on my symptoms I believe i might have lupus.Is there anyone who has the disease?
    My symptoms are,low white blood cell count,low grade fever,eczema,arthritis,joint pain etc.Is anyone with the disease familiar with those symptoms(because not everyone gets the same symptoms).Took an ANA test have not gotten the results.Anyone with experience and would like to share?Thank u.

    1. Rita V

      Cherry, I have Lupus and have been dealing with it for 19yrs., It’s so compelated I’m just gonna give you a medical site to explain since it would take half the day. Go to (web md ) lots of info about Lupus, there’s two kinds but they will explain that to you. Good Luck Rita V

  11. Val

    Does anybody knows what Lupus is?
    Please answer these question because I needed so much
    1.how does it happen? What cause it
    2.What are the risk that Lupus patients take?
    3.What are the chances for patients to be hundred percently recovered
    4.could the patients be pregnant?
    5.And I have heard the rumor, most of the Lupus Patients will have a broken marriage, what do you think?
    6.Could it be inherited or passed down to the child they have?

  12. kathy k

    i received blood test results from my rheumetologist office and have no clue what any of it means.?
    my doctor is on vacation for 3 wks and i wanna know what all these numbers mean.Do i have Lupus,or is is Fybromyalgia,how can i tell ?
    MY SED RATE IS 25 , CRP IS 11.7,RDW IS14.8,PLT IS 534,DOES ANYONE KNOW WHAT ANY OF THAT IS?
    ok now i’m swollen and in pain from back of neck down to my swollen feet,fingertips r numb n tingly.i am debating on going to ER since i dont have a doctor here.

    1. jasiek130680

      How can I tell….!? You don’t show the results of these tests so I don’t know what to explain you….
      EDIT: these results show a mild inflammatory process. Now it’s the time for clinical data (symptoms)! My “nose” says that it’s not Lupus, but I cannot exclude fibromyalgia (you don’t say a word of your symptoms)

  13. angelinaismywifey

    dry skin, odd scarring bumps on face, neck, back and raynauds syndrome…..what could this be!?
    scaly hands and thickened skin on hands and feet
    swelling of any possible joint
    circulation problems and changes
    abnormal amounts of grey hairs all of a sudden
    weight loss
    gastrointestinal problems
    itchy skin!

    etc! i cant get a diagnosis i wanna say its lupus but w/ a rash that is noticable to everyone else …

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