Plaque psoriasis is recognized as one of the most common types of psoriasis (an autoimmune disease which affects the skin and joints and manifests as red, scaly skin patches called psoriatic plaques). These patches are mostly seen on the skin of the elbows and knees, but they can also affect areas like the scalp and genitals.

Plaque psoriasis is a chronic condition with a severity that varies from localized patches to patches over the entire body. Not infrequently, even finger and toenails are not spared the brunt of this skin ailment, which may also cause psoriatic arthritis (inflammation of the joints).

As to what causes psoriasis still remains something of a medical mystery, but most researchers believe it to have a genetic factor. Psoriasis may be aggravated by factors like stress, excessive imbibing of alcohol, smoking etc.

Even though a number of treatments exist, healthcare professionals still find psoriasis a challenge to treat, owing to its recurrent nature. While topical medications can be used to treat mild to moderate versions of this disease, its severe manifestations (when it affects more than 10% of the body or prevents you from going about your daily activities) demand stronger measures by way of oral retinoids like generic soriatane.

What is soriatane and for whom is it prescribed? Soriatane is an oral medication used to address severe cases of plaque psoriasis, especially when all else has failed. Also known as Acitretin, Soriatane is a synthetic form (laboratory derivative) of Vitamin A (aka retinoic acid) and belongs to a class of drugs called retinoids.

While large doses of Vitamin A can reduce the thickness and scaliness of the skin, excessive doses of the same can be toxic and can cause liver damage. Soriatane works by regulating the reproduction of skin cells, their speed of growth and reducing inflammation. Soriatane also differs from other anti-psoriasis medications in that it does not damage cells or act as an immumo-suppressant. Incidentally, Soriatane is the only oral retinoid which has received the approval of the FDA for treatment of psoriasis.

During clinical trials and consequent studies, it has been seen that a large majority of patients put on soriatane showed marked improvement within an 8-week period.

Soriatane, however, is proscribed for pregnant women, as another retinoid called Accutane was earlier reported to have caused birth defects in some newborns – the risk of miscarriage too seemed to be higher with this drug. Hence, it is advisable for women with childbearing potential to undergo two negative pregnancy tests prior to being administered Soriatane. Also, they must adopt two effective birth control methods at least a month before commencing treatment with soriatane.

You should not take soriatane if:
You are suffering from severe liver or kidney disease You show intolerance to retinoids Your blood has high triglyceride levels
As for side effects, Soriatane's use may cause dry skin and lips. Other conditions, though less frequent, include abnormal bone growth, altered cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as and vision trouble.

About the author:


common types of autoimmune diseases

27 thoughts on “Common Types Of Autoimmune Diseases

  1. Crash

    What are the symptoms of ascites? What does it look like? Is it ever associated with autoimmune disease?
    Does it only show up in your abdomen, or on your back, above your buttocks, as well?

    1. habuMe

      Ascites is accumulation of free fluid in the abdomen (peritoneal cavity). It causes abdominal distention. It does not accumulate ‘on your back’ or ‘above your buttocks’. However, excessive tissue fluids (edema) or pus may accumulate in those two sites you mentioned.

      Ascites is a sign or symptom of a disease but not a disease by itself. That its presence is an indication that a disease process is going on in the body. Just like fever or vomiting or headache – the cause has to be searched for.

      There are several causes of ascites. Among the common causes are liver disease, kidney disease (nephrotic syndrome), heart failure, abdominal cancers. People with autoimmune diseases have higher risk of having lymphomas (a type of cancer) which may cause ascites.

  2. Jess

    Since type 1 diabetes is a autoimmune disease, is it common to have hypoglycemia before being diagnosed?
    Is the body producing to much insulin to make up for the antibodies attacking the insulin producing cells?

    1. Cathy the Chef

      It’s an interesting idea but I don’t think so – there is no way I was hypo before I was diagnosed, just really really high! To be honest I don’t know – you need to ask some kinda biomedical scientist but it’s not something I’ve ever heard of and from personal experience I’d say I doubt it.

    1. Liam

      Again, “cool” is probably subjective but I have tried to get some interesting ones:
      – Cold agglutinin disease: it’s a type of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia which means you make antibodies that damage your red blood cells. The antibody, immunoglobulin M (IgM) binds strongest at low temperatures e.g. 4°C, so the disease is worse in cold weather.
      – Type I diabetes mellitus might be interesting because it is fairly common. It results from your body reacting to a virus and accidentally destroying the beta cells of the pancreas that make insulin.

    1. Gary B

      BOTH Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes are caused by a lack of insulin. Insulin is a hormone that allows sugar in the blood (sugar placed there by the digestive process) to pass into the cells to be used as fuel for functioning, growth, and healing. Without insulin, the sugar cannot pass into the cells, and so builds up in the blood. this causes all sorts pf nasty damage, including death.

      Type 1 Diabetes is caused by a complete failure of the pancreas, the internal organ which produces insulin. This most often happens in children under the age of 25, and so USED TO BE called “Juvenile Diabetes”. but in fact age plays NO role, and Type 1 Diabetes can happen to anybody at any time.

      The cause for the complete shutdown in Type 1 Diabetes is not completely known. The best information at this time is that this is an autoimmune disease. The body is attacking pancreas as if it were an invader, like a transplanted organ.

      Ty6pe 2 Diabetes is caused by being overweight, even by as little as 10 pounds in some people. In this case the pancreas is overworked, and often shows a partial failure, producing some, but not enough, insulin. This is called Insulin Deficient Diabetes

      There is a second kind of Type 2 Diabetes called Insulin Resistant. In this case the pancreas is producing some, maybe even all, of its capacity of insulin, but the overweight body can’t use it correctly.

      Because Type 2 Diabetes is caused by being overweight, this is often called Adult Onset Diabetes. but this, too, is an OLD name, and the fact is that many children and young adults set around watching TV, playing video games, and eating snack foods, and thus gain weight leading to Type 2 Diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes is now being seen in overweight children as young as 9 YEARS OLD!

      Symptoms for BOTH types of diabetes are the same, and vary widely. Unfortunately, both types of diabetes are overlooked until the patient gets VERY sick, and close to death — extreme lethargy (tiredness), mental confusion, vomiting, etc.

      earlier symptoms include eyesight problems, digestive problems (including upset stomach, and diarrhea and constipation), pain and tingling in the hands and feet, and so on. In adults, the symptoms often show up as sexual problems, especially in men who often suffer Erectile Dysfunction caused by Type 2 Diabetes.

      The trouble is., the symptoms of diabetes are the same as hundreds of other disease, including puberty and old age! the ONLY way to diagnose diabetes is through blood tests taken at the doctor’s office.

      If left untreated, the results are severe! Diabetics don’t heal well, and are susceptible to all sort of infection, from infected toenails to pneumonia. The higher the blood sugars, the more difficult it is to treat an infection. Diabetes also caused high blood pressure and high cholesterol, both of which lead to strokes, heart attacks, and Alzheimer’s Disease. Blindness is common. If infections of the fingers, toes, and feet don’t heal, gangrene often sets in, and amputation is necessary.

      NO ONE knows for sure what causes diabetes, There seems to be a weak genetic component (if your parents, their parents or brothers and sister have it, you re at a higher risk). Type 1 Diabetes seems to pop up whenever it feels like it! Type 2 Diabetes is ALWASY caused by being overweight, so keeping a healthy lifestyle is VERY important.

      One thing for sure — Diabetes is NOT caused by eating the wrong food, and diabetes is NOT caused by eating sugar! These are old and dangerous myths, and need to be eradicated!

      THERE IS NO CURE FOR DIABETES! Once you are diabetic, you will be that way for the rest of your life, and you must continue treatment each and every day.

      For the Type 1 Diabetic the ONLY treatment is insulin injections. Without them they will die. Because they have to receive their insulin “artificially”, they MUST keep a close watch on the physical activity, food intake

      The Type 2 Diabetic has it a little better. Since Type 2 Diabetes is caused by being overweight, much improvement can be seen by strict control of the diet, more exercise, and weight loss.

      In addition to that, there are several oral medications that help the body produce more insulin and use it better, so insulin shots are not always required.

      In act, if the Type 2 Diabetic has great will power and personal resolve, they might be able to totally eliminate their medicine by adopting a new, more healthy lifestyle.

      Still, there is NO CURE for diabetes, and even the fit-and-trim Type 2 Diabetic MUST check himself everyday and work hard to insure that the disease does not return.

  3. Anonymous

    How exactly do you get diabetes?
    I’m so curious. I’m confused about how people get diabetes. I’ve read articles about how you get it but I still just don’t understand. Do you get it from too much sugar, or not eating enough, or what? How do you get Type 1 diabetes? Do you only get Type 2 diabetes if you’re overweight, do all overweight people get diabetes?

  4. Sascha

    what are the different types of diebetes and can you explain them to me please?
    I just want to know because my mom has it and i’m kinda at risk. I think my mom has type 2 diebetes. Can you explain all the types please?

    1. Tin S

      There are three main types of diabetes that have been categorized by medical scientists.

      The first type is called Type I Diabetes. Formerly known as juvenile diabetes, this type begins to make its appearance in pre-adolescence or adolescent growth. It is an insulin dependent autoimmune disease in which the body destroys its own beta cells. It accounts for 10% of all diabetes types.

      The second type is called Type II Diabetes. This disease generally appears after 40 years of age. It is most likely triggered by poor diet and lack of exercise. Because of poor diets and the availability of fast food, Type II diabetes is now showing up in teenagers. It is non-insulin dependent, meaning insulin is used to control blood sugar levels but is not crucial to maintaining life.

      Gestational Diabetes is the third type of diabetes. Occurring during a woman’s pregnancy, the mother has difficulty digesting carbohydrates. Gynecologists usually perform this test on all pregnant women early in the first trimester.
      There is also a condition called Pre-Diabetes. This condition is defined as someone who has elevated blood sugar levels, but does not fall into a clearly defined category.

      Syndrome X, Polycystic Ovary Disease, Hemocromatosis and Cystic Fibrosis are additional types of insulin resistant diabetes.

      As a Type I diabetic ages, the symptomatic lines begin to blur into Type II. A person can also be typed as Type 1.5, Type 2-s or Type 2-d.

      It is very important that factors such as ketones, antibodies, high triglyceride and low HDL, uric acid, and C-peptide be taken into account for your diagnosis.

      Incorrectly categorizing diabetes is very common. Conditions that worsen or don’t show improvement should be brought to the attention of a diabetic specialist.

      As aging blurs the lines of the types of diabetes, it is very important to review your symptoms often.

      Good luck.

  5. Anonymous

    Has medicine changed the world for better or worse?
    If we are said to be living longer than ever before, why has depression, suicide, eating disorders, drug abuse, and other common problems increased? Autoimmune diseases, worldwide catastrophes… could this have anything to do with nutrition and/or medicine?

    1. doxidude

      when you say “medicine” I think of drugs which are supposedly going to cure us of an ailment…the penicillin type drugs…the other “cillins” which are based on penicillin but do not give that bad reaction (hopefully).

      Aspirin for pain – but then drug companies spun that off to different drugs and added some other compounds…they experimented.

      I agree that too many health care professionals do tend to prescribe a drug = man-made stuff = but there are some which DO SEEM to acually listen to you and do … well, what worked in ages past … tho that might not be really the way to go.

      Oh yes, the drugs we arew told to take screw up our body. Some more than others.

      Docs just do what they think and have learned. I would be in favour of some of these older remdies – not that a shot of whiskey will be okay for a snake bite….but you know what I am saying,

  6. cross-stitcher

    What is the difference between RA (Rheumatoid Arthritis) and OA (Osteoarthritis?
    I’m just wondering if there are any major differences in the types of arthritis es and what are the major symptoms of both are? Thanks!!

    1. ★☆✿❀

      Osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage has gone through wear and tear in a joint. It often only occurs in one joint, like a knee or a hip. Osteoarthritis occurs in about 60-80% of the population. Most people with osteoarthritis will be given pain relief like NSAIDs or cortisone injections into the specific joint.

      Rheumatoid Arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease. Meaning your whole body is affected. Your immune system attacks itself instead of foreign bodies. It usually it affects joints symmetrically, so both knees, both hips etc. It can also attack organs, skin and eyes. The medication used for RA is very powerful. Many people are given DMARDs (disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs). These slow down the progress of the disease and help prevent joint erosion. The most common drug prescribed is Methotrexate, it’s actually an anti-cancer drug. In many cases it’s not strong enough and people have to add another DMARD, steroids and biologic DMARDs which are very expensive drugs.


    1. Tubby

      Infectious mononucleosis (also known as EBV infectious mononucleosis or Pfeiffer’s disease and colloquially as kissing disease – from its oral distribution – or as mono in North America and as glandular fever in other English-speaking countries) is an infectious, very widespread viral disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, which well over 90% of all adults are exposed to at some point in their life.[1] Most people are exposed to the virus as children, when the disease produces no noticeable symptoms or only flu-like symptoms. In underdeveloped countries, people are exposed to the virus in early childhood more often than in developed countries, which is why the disease in its observable form is more common in developed countries, where it is most common among high school and college students.[2]

      Especially in adolescents and young adults, the disease is characterized by fever, sore throat and fatigue, along with several other possible signs and symptoms. It is primarily diagnosed by observation of symptoms, but suspicion can be confirmed by several diagnostic tests.

      The syndrome was described as an infectious process by Emil Pfeiffer in 1889.[3][4]

      Contents [hide]
      1 Signs and symptoms
      2 Pathophysiology
      3 Diagnosis
      3.1 Differential diagnosis
      4 Treatment
      5 Prognosis
      6 Notes
      7 External links

      [edit] Signs and symptoms

      Main symptoms of IM.[5][6][7]Mononucleosis has a set of common symptoms that are usually presented in the individual with the disease. The classical symptoms are a sore throat, fever, fatigue, weight loss, malaise, pharyngeal inflammation and petechiae, and common signs include lymphadenopathy (enlarged lymph nodes), splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), hepatitis (refers to inflammatory cells in the liver) and hemolysis (the bursting of red blood cells). Older adults are less likely to have a sore throat or lymphadenopathy, but are instead more likely to present with hepatomegaly (enlargement of the liver) and jaundice. Rarer signs and symptoms include thrombocytopenia (lower levels of platelets), with or without pancytopenia (lower levels of all types of blood cells), splenic rupture, splenic hemorrhage, upper airway obstruction, pericarditis and pneumonitis. Another rare manifestation of mononucleosis is erythema multiforme.[8][9]

      Mononucleosis is sometimes accompanied by secondary cold agglutinin disease—an autoimmune disease in which abnormal circulating antibodies directed against red blood cells can lead to a form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The cold agglutinin detected is of anti-i specificity.[10] Patients with infectious mononucleosis are sometimes misdiagnosed with a streptococcal pharyngitis (because of the classical clinical triad of fever, pharyngitis and adenopathy) and are given antibiotics such as ampicillin or amoxicillin as treatment. Some studies indicate that approximately 80-90% of patients with acute Epstein Barr virus infection treated with such antibiotics develop a red, diffuse rash.[11]

      [edit] Pathophysiology
      Infectious mononucleosis occurs with infection by the Epstein-Barr virus.[12] A similar condition can be caused by cytomegalovirus. Because of this, some sources say that infectious mononucleosis is “usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus”.[13] Other sources reserve a different term, “cytomegalovirus mononucleosis,” for mononucleosis caused by cytomegalovirus.[14] Some sources state that infectious mononucleosis can also be caused by toxoplasmosis or viral hepatitis.[15]

      The infection is spread via saliva and has an incubation period of 4-7 weeks.[16]

      The virus replicates first within epithelial cells in the pharynx (which causes sore throat), and later primarily within B cells (which are invaded via their CD21). The host immune response involves cytotoxic (CD8-positive) T cells against infected B lymphocytes, resulting in enlarged atypical lymphocytes (Downey cells).[17][18]

      When the infection is acute (recent onset, instead of chronic), heterophile antibodies are produced.[9]

      [edit] Diagnosis

      Peripheral blood smear (low power) showing lymphocytosis from a 16-year-old male with pharyngitis.The most commonly used diagnostic criterion is the presence of 50% lymphocytes with at least 10% atypical lymphocytes (large, irregular nuclei),[8] while the person also has fever, pharyngitis and adenopathy. Furthermore, it should be confirmed by a serological test.[9] Diagnostic tests are used to confirm infectious mononucleosis but the disease should be suspected from symptoms prior to the results from hematology.[19] These criteria are specific; however, they are not particularly sensitive and are more useful for research than for clinical use. Only half the patients presenting with the symptoms held by mononucleosis and a positive heterophile antibody test (monospot test) meet the entire criteria. One key procedure is to differentiate between infectious mononucleosis and mononucleosis-like symptoms.

      There h

  7. STAHMO3

    Are autoimmune diseases more common in men than women?
    Multiple Sclerosis, Myasthenia gravis, Graves’ Disease, Type 1 Diabetes mellitus, SLE, and Rheumatoid Arthrits. I am not talking about AIDS statistics, AIDS is not an autoimmune disease.

  8. martianmanwhore

    Is the enterovirus proven to be directly connected to causing type 1 juvenile diabetes?
    I am asking this because, I showed all the symptoms of this virus for almost a year constantly going to the doctor (at 3 different hospitals) and then all of the sudden I was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. If they would have caught it in the act and treated the enterovirus would I have gotten diabetes? And should I sue the 3 hospitals I went to for ruining my life?

    1. Hip

      Enteroviruses such as coxsackievirus B and echovirus 4 are associated with type 1 diabetes. In the case of coxsackievirus B, it is thought that this virus may infect and destroy the insulin producing beta-cells in the pancreas, and that these beta-cells may also be damaged by autoimmune processes in the body that are instigated by this virus.

      However, there is as yet no definitive proof that such enteroviruses do cause type 1 diabetes, just a good possibility. There is no proof because finding a statistical association between a virus and a disease does not automatically prove that the virus actually caused that disease. More research is required to prove it definitively.

      Personally I suspect that many common diseases are likely caused by chronic microbial infections in the body, but more research is needed to prove all this.

      Treatment of chronic enterovirus infections is in fact very difficult, as there are few effective antiviral treatments. Intravenous interferon works to a degree, though it costs typically $5000 for a course of treatment, and the virus invariably returns around 6 months later.

  9. icantwait48

    What is lupus and how does one get lupus?
    My annoying ex-boyfriend and I got into a huge argument over what lupus really is. My dad, a physician for very sick adults, told me that lupus could be anything because it disguises itself as other diseases. My ex told me, his source being a doctor, that lupus was a skin disease and that it starts out as a skin disease. Any medical information?

    1. Anonymous

      The cause of lupus is unknown. It falls under the category of autoimmune diseases, which are noninfectious diseases where the body is believed to be, for some reason, attacking itself. There is one type of lupus which is called “discoid lupus erythematosos” which affects only the skin and is usually not very serious. The other lupus can attack MANY different areas of the body and its seriousness can go from mild to extremely severe. There is not one specific test for lupus and it can be hard to diagnose since its presentation may differ greatly from person to person and it may appear differently at different times even in the same person. Some of the more common presentations may include joint pain and swelling, chronic or intermittent low grade temperature, severe fatigue, red skin rashes (the “classic” lupus skin lesion is a red rash appearing over the nose/upper cheeks in the form of a butterfly–but of course not everyone gets that)–lupus can also affect the kidneys, the cardiovascular system, can cause blood disorders and may cause many other symptoms as well. In some cases lupus patients may experience head hair loss. If lupus is suspected, the best type of doctor to see would be a rheumatologist who would be familiar with the group of blood tests which may indicate that a person MAY have lupus–since there is no one blood test. If a person is diagnosed as having lupus, treatment would be directed at stopping the abnormal body response that is causing the patient’s symptoms–there are a number of very different types of medications which can be used to try to achieve this.I have given a very general description of a very complicated disorder and would suggest you read up on it –perhaps WEBMD would be a place to start.

  10. **[Witty_Name]**

    What types of thyroid conditions can cause weight gain and hair loss?
    And is there anyway to check it without going to the doctor. I imagine there isn’t, but I figure it doesn’t hurt to ask.

    1. Anonymous

      Hi, Witty. There are two primary kinds of thyroid disease relevant to weight gain and hair loss, hyperthyroidism, (overactive), and hypothyroidism, (underactive). Both conditions are mostly found in women and are a major cause of hair loss.

      Hyperthyroidism is a condition that overly produces thyroid hormone by an enlarged thyroid gland, which diffuses hair loss. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is called Graves’ disease, an autoimmune condition resulting in over producing thyroid hormone by an enlarged gland. Women between their twenties and thirties are mostly infected with hyperthyroidism.

      Hypothyroidism is a condition that doesn’t produce enough thyroid hormone. The most common cause of hypothyroidism is called Hashimoto’s disease, antibodies that attacks the thyroid causing destruction towards the thyroid hormone production.

      Some symptoms of hyperthyroidism are weight gain or loss, excessive perspiring, fatigue, leg swelling, emotional changes and oily skin.

      Symptoms of hypothyroidism include weight gain, depression, the swelling of eyelids, hands and feet, muscle aches and dry skin.

      Studies have shown that millions of Americans have been affected with a thyroid disease. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are autoimmune thyroid diseases, and if you have one autoimmune disease you can easily increase the risk of attracting another autoimmune disease.

      It’s nothing to fool around with, so I would bite the bullet and get checked out by a doctor.

  11. mscalverttt

    What diseases would have the symptom of coughing up blood or blood in the phlegm?
    This is not a symptom of my own so please don’t tell me to go to the doctor, it is for a piece of work I have to do for College.

    If you could tell me the name of a disease/ diseases that cause this, preferably not consumption or TB, a little about it and other symptoms it would be a massive help!
    If you could also include treatment options and how serious a disease it is that would also be fantastic!

    Hope you can help! Thanks!

    1. Laine B

      First: spitting up blood is clinically known as: HEMOPTYSIS (bloody sputum, spit)
      Yes, pneumonia is the most likely, but……
      The following is from my medical e-book (I’m a nursing student)

      “Blood in the sputum (hemoptysis) is most often seen in clients with chronic bronchitis or lung cancer. Clients with tuberculosis, pulmonary infarction, bronchial adenoma, or lung abscess may have grossly bloody sputum.”
      Also the end stage of cycstic fibrosis will present with hemoptysis.

      a biggie in the hospital is:
      A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a collection of particulate matter (solids, liquids, or gaseous substances) that enters venous circulation and lodges in the pulmonary vessels. Large emboli obstruct pulmonary blood flow, leading to decreased systemic oxygenation, pulmonary tissue hypoxia, and potential death. Any substance can cause an embolism, but a blood clot is the most common.

      Pulmonary embolism is the most common acute pulmonary disease (90%) among hospitalized clients. In most people with PE, a blood clot from a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) breaks loose from one of the veins in the legs or the pelvis. The thrombus breaks off, travels through the vena cava and right side of the heart, and then lodges in a smaller blood vessel in the lung. Platelets collect with the embolus, triggering the release of substances that cause blood vessel constriction. Widespread pulmonary vessel constriction and pulmonary hypertension impair gas exchange. Deoxygenated blood shunts into the arterial circulation, causing hypoxemia. About 12% of clients with PE do not have hypoxemia.

      Pulmonary embolism affects at least 500,000 people a year in the United States, about 10% of whom die. Many die within 1 hour of the onset of symptoms or before the diagnosis has even been suspected.

      For clients with a known risk for PE, small doses of prophylactic subcutaneous heparin may be prescribed every 8 to 12 hours. Heparin prevents excessive coagulation in clients immobilized for a prolonged period, after trauma or surgery, or when restricted to bedrest. Occasionally, a drug to reduce platelet aggregation, such as clopidogrel (Plavix), is used in place of heparin.

      A smaller one that popped up in the book:
      Goodpasture’s syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which autoantibodies are made against the glomerular basement membrane and neutrophils. The two organs with the most damage are the lungs and the kidney. Lung damage is manifested as pulmonary hemorrhage. Kidney damage manifests as glomerulonephritis that may rapidly progress to complete renal failure (see Chapters 74 and 75). Unlike other autoimmune disorders, Goodpasture’s syndrome occurs most often in adolescent or young adult men. The exact cause or triggering agent is unknown.

      Goodpasture’s syndrome usually is not diagnosed until serious lung and/or kidney problems are present. Manifestations include shortness of breath, hemoptysis (bloody sputum), decreased urine output, weight gain, generalized nondependent edema, hypertension, and tachycardia. Chest x-rays show areas of consolidation. The most common cause of death is uremia as a result of renal failure.

      Spontaneous resolution of Goodpasture’s syndrome has occurred but is rare. Interventions focus on reducing the immune-mediated damage and performing some type of renal supportive therapy.

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