Cotinine is actually a metabolic of nicotine, used to determine the level of tobacco smoking. Well said fact is this “Almost all of the damages or injuries which a person undergoes are generally man-made “. Many times we ourselves great such things which ultimately becomes a source of pain for us. A well known example of this is alcohol or drug addiction. We start with something for getting social as an occasional habit, but soon it takes the shape of an addiction and converts into pain and sufferings which at worst level leads to even death. Nicotine addiction is amongst those habits. Cotinine test makes it possible to detect smoke level in one's body and this level of smoke is described by cotinine level.

Effects of Cotinine

Impact of Cotinine is identical to any adulterous drug use. Cotinine is smoked in cigarettes, chewed, and sniffed. When nicotine is metabolized, it slowly but surely develops the degree of cotinine within the body of chronic smokers. This drug is actually favourite among youngsters since it is to be found in colorful packages along with taste alternatives to abuse. Cotinine itself is not dangerous however nicotine hurts, along with numerous adverse reactions on the health and fitness. It is universally known that tobacco use turns into many life destroying diseases such as carcinoma of the lung, cerebrovascular accident, coronary disease, respiratory complications such as asthma, blood clot formation and many more hazardous diseases. With women who are pregnant, smoking can be extremely bad for the infant causing either retard critical development or result in reduced birth weight babies. It is also very dangerous for those who do not smoke themselves but inhale the smoke being in the company of smokers. Passive smoking is much more dangerous.

Cotinine Testing Of course smoking is not one such habit which anyone should be proud of and it is not easy leave such habit of smoking as the nicotine level within the body raises to enormous levels which create a kind of hindrance for people who try to quit. But this is something which is not impossible. Cotinine effects are found in body for 20 hours from the time of consumption. Cotinine levels can be detected using various immunoassay technologies like gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Cotinine can be detected from days to one week after tobacco abuse. It retains in the blood for long period after consumption through smoking. Cigarette choices, menthol, puff size, etc are some factors influence the detection period of cotinine. Different persons have different levels of cotinine.

Cotinine testing is carried out to differentiate smokers from non smokers who possess a good amount of nicotine in their body, from those who have been exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. One of the chosen way is urine drug testing. Cotinine testing via saliva drug testing is difficult both regards to accumulating the sample along with drug detection. Using testing packages, cotinine testing is simple and easy carry out at home without much hassle for people who are trying to quit the habit. And obviously easiest way to decrease the cotinine levels is to stop smoking.

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Source: http://www.sooperarticles.com/health-fitness-articles/detoxification-articles/what-cotinine-cotinine-testing-356488.html


how long for blood test results for lupus

4 thoughts on “How Long For Blood Test Results For Lupus

  1. alisiacara

    Lupus, can a skin sample diagnose it?How long is test to results?
    my daughter has a rash on her arm- sampled, her face and lips and in her mouth. they seem to start from exposure to the sun.
    took test yesterday-tuesday

    1. New York Chick

      Lupus is usually diagnosed with a blood test and the results came back to me in about one week. Unfortunately, the rash is a classic symptom after sun exposure, but it could also be nothing but a sun rash. It is very hard to diagnose Lupus, because the symptoms are so wide and varied. In order to be truly diagnosed you must have the blood test as well as several other symptoms. It is very possible to get false results on the blood test as well….which makes it that much more frustrating. I would take your doctor to a good Internist for testing. Many Rhuemetologists also have experience in diagnosing Lupus, because of the joint pain associated with it, so if you know of one, that is an idea also. My advice is to try not to worry too much, because one symptom does not mean she has Lupus. Take care and I hope things work out for you and her. Lupus is not fun.

  2. Anonymous

    My right eye is very dry during the night?
    I have been diagnose with conjunctivitis and my doctor gave me antibiotic but after I used it all up my eyes is dry again but not itching and my eyes have mild rednees do you think my conjuntivitis is healing up help!! me!!

    1. Alisa

      Dry eye syndrome is a chronic lack of sufficient lubrication and moisture on the surface of the eye.
      Its consequences range from subtle but constant irritation to ocular inflammation of the anterior (front) tissues of the eye.
      Dry eyes also are described by the medical term, keratitis sicca, which generally means decreased quality or quantity of tears. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca refers to eye dryness affecting the cornea and conjunctiva.
      Dry Eye Syndrome Symptoms
      Persistent dryness, scratching and burning in your eyes are signs of dry eye syndrome. These symptoms alone may prompt your eye doctor to diagnose dry eye syndrome.
      But sometimes your eye doctor may want to measure the amount of tears in your eyes. A thin strip of filter paper placed under the lower eyelid, called a Schirmer test, is one way to measure tear production.
      Another symptom of dry eyes is a “foreign body sensation,” the feeling that something is in the eye.
      And it may seem odd, but sometimes watery eyes can result from dry eye syndrome, because the excessive dryness works to overstimulate production of the watery component of your eye’s tears.
      What Causes Dry Eyes?
      Tears bathe the eye, washing out dust and debris and keeping the eye moist. They also contain enzymes that neutralize the microorganisms that colonize the eye. Tears are essential for good eye health.
      In dry eye syndrome, the lacrimal gland or associated glands near the eye don’t produce enough tears, or the tears have a chemical composition that causes them to evaporate too quickly.
      Dry eye syndrome has several causes. It occurs as a part of the natural aging process, especially during menopause; as a side effect of many medications, such as antihistamines, antidepressants, certain blood pressure medicines, Parkinson’s medications and birth control pills; or because you live in a dry, dusty or windy climate.
      If your home or office has air conditioning or a dry heating system, that too can dry out your eyes. Another cause is insufficient blinking, such as when you’re staring at a computer screen all day.
      Dry eyes also are a symptom of systemic diseases such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, ocular rosacea or Sjogren’s syndrome (a triad of dry eyes, dry mouth and rheumatoid arthritis or lupus).
      Long-term contact lens wear is another cause; in fact, dry eyes are the most common complaint among contact lens wearers.
      Recent research indicates that contact lens wear and dry eyes can be a vicious cycle. Dry eye syndrome makes contact lenses feel uncomfortable, and the rubbing of the lenses against the conjunctiva seems to be a cause of dry eyes.
      Incomplete closure of the eyelids, eyelid disease and a deficiency of the tear-producing glands are other causes.
      Each layer is produced by different glands near the eye. The lacrimal gland located above the outer corner of the eye produces the lacrimal layer, for example. So a problem with any of those sources can result in dry eyes.
      Dry eye syndrome is more common in women, possibly due to hormone fluctuations. A recent study also indicates that that risk of dry eyes among men increases with age.
      Recent research suggests that smoking, too, can increase your risk of dry eye syndrome.
      With increased popularity of cosmetic eyelid surgery (blepharoplasty) for improved appearance, dry eye complaints now occasionally are associated with incomplete closure of eyelids following such a procedure.
      Treatment for Dry Eyes
      Dry eye syndrome is an ongoing condition that may not be completely curable (depending on the cause), but the accompanying dryness, scratchiness and burning can be managed. Your eye care practitioner may prescribe artificial tears, which are lubricating eye drops that may alleviate the dry, scratching feeling.
      Restasis eye drops (cyclosporine in a castor oil base) go one step further: by helping your body produce more tears. Restasis treatment is the first of its kind.
      Another option for dry eye treatment is called Lacrisert, a tiny insert filled with a lubricating ingredient (hydroxypropyl cellulose). The insert is placed just inside the lower eyelid, where it continuously releases lubrication for the eye throughout the day.
      Sometimes people use the eye drops that “get the red out” to treat their dry eyes. This won’t work unless the eye drops also contain artificial tears, and the original “get-the-red-out” formulation doesn’t. These drops can reduce or eliminate the redness temporarily, but they don’t treat the cause of the redness, whether it’s dryness, environmental irritation or some other problem.
      Not only that, but the vasoconstrictors in those formulas that reduce redness by contracting the eye’s blood vessels are addictive, in the sense that over time, more and more is needed to achieve the same effect. With frequent use, the effect diminishes after a while — the blood vessels simply won’t constrict as much as they did when you first used the drops.
      If you wear contact lenses, be aware that many eye

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