The 3 major sets of salivary surgery glands are the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. You can find 750-1000 minor salivary glands positioned on the lips down to the trachea.

Bilateral salivary gland enlargement may perhaps be caused by viral illnesses (for instance mumps and human immunodeficiency virus), autoimmune disorders (such as Sjogren's disease) or other systemic ailments (for instance diabetes).

A agonizing enlargement of 1 in the main glands is frequently because of a bacterial infection commonly next a period of dehydration. Therapy for this needs antibiotics, hydration and stimulation of salivary flow with sialagogues for example lemon drops. Salivary duct stones could also obstruct the outflow of saliva and cause a agonizing enlargement with the gland and secondary bacterial infection. This most generally influences the submandibular gland. Treatment for that is stone removal.

Masses inside salivary gland will need being evaluated. Normally a fine needle aspiration is executed to determine if a malignancy is present. Often an imaging study (such as a CT scan or MRI scan) is obtained too. Use of these two tests is useful in diagnosing 95% of instances. Most masses from the parotid gland are benign. Nevertheless, even these benign masses will carry on to grow and some can transform into a malignant mass. As a result, earlier excision is recommended to confirm the diagnosis and make sure an sufficient margin of excision to avoid recurrence. Parotidectomy must be performed meticulously to prevent injury towards the facial nerve, the important nerve that moves the face. The facial nerve runs proper via the parotid gland.

Half from the masses from the submandibular gland are malignant while the vast majority of masses with the sublingual and minor salivary glands are malignant. The major hazards during excision of the submanidbular gland are towards lingual nerve (the nerve that provides taste sensation inside tongue) and hypoglossal nerve (the nerve that moves the tongue).

What to expect following a parotidectomy:

* Most individuals go home within 2 times of surgery.
* A drain tube is placed under the wound to prevent fluid accumulation under the skin color. This is typically eliminated 1-2 times following surgery is total.
* Numbness with the ear and surrounding skin color is typical. Extra care must be used when removing clothes more than the head or shaving. This usually resolves slowly over time.
* Other feasible short phrase complications include bleeding and infection
* Above time, some sufferers will encounter sweating at the website with the parotidectomy while eating (“Frey's syndrome” or gustatory sweating). Commonly it is not bothersome, but symptomatic situations may be treated with medications or occasionally surgical treatment.
* Quite seldom, a salivary fistula may well happen (wherever saliva drains out through the skin color at the incision web site).

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immune disorders examples

21 thoughts on “Immune Disorders Examples

  1. Sincere

    Sometimes my mind is blank for nobappearent reason?
    I find myself not thinking at all and having a blank mind at times. This really bothers me. For example, sometimes I would be studying chemistry and my mind would just go completely blank and would lose all of my train of thought. This makes me have to reread what I have already read, wasting precious time. I am sick of this. This even happens when I have a converstion with people, causing dull conversations. I am somewhat lazy at times, which may contribute to this but I am not sure. I am 20 and in college.

  2. Alex Rodriguez

    Is it possible to relate the field of pharmacology to immunology?
    I have a prof who studies drugs and how some of them suppress the immune system (t cells/b cells) and cause patients to be more susceptible to infection. He calls it immunopharmacology. Is there such a field?

    1. Smith S

      Yes there is….In fact in both fields i.e pharmacology on its own and immunology on its own both have separate or should i say sub portions of them that specifically teach how both fields are intertwined. During my pharmacology classes i learnt about “pharmacomodulation” which spanned the fields of pharmacogenetics and pharmaco-immunomodulation.
      For example as you correctly stated in your question, some drugs such as such as infliximab are monoclonal antibodies (basically a collection of one certain type of antibodies) in this case antibodies against THF-alpha; and are the result of both pharmacology and immunology combined.
      Immunology gave the understanding of how THF-alpha plays a role in modulating certain immune responses involving the white blood cells (T and B cells) and also gave the understanding of certain group of antibodies can work against TNF-alpha and gave the understanding of how this plays a role in autoimmunity.
      Pharmacology took that knowledge and collected a group of antibodies against TNF-alpha, so that they can now create a drug that inhibits the action of TNF-alpha and therefore suppress inflammatory activity. They studied the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug and now we have Infliximab that can be used to treat autoimmune disorders such as ulcerative colitis and crohns and spondyloarthropathies such as ankylosing spondylitis etc etc.
      It’s quite an interesting field, i particularly have a flare for immunology and during my course of studying it i came across the study of immunomodulatory therapies (drugs that can alter the immune system) again basically a merger of the two subjects.
      Have fun in your course of study!!! and good luck.

  3. Sam

    Is all inflammation linked with the immune system?
    I am studying a module on immunity and have recently been learning about the process of inflammation. I am wondering whether the inflammation that results from a pathogen, for example tonsillitis, is the same type of inflammation that results from say a sprained ankle. Would the damage caused by a sprained ankle initiate an immune response or is there a different reason for this swelling?

    1. Khadiva

      This is a good question. I suffer from an autoimmune disorder that started from, what I and my doctors believe was blunt trauma to my lower extremities. Basically I bumped my leg. This is exactly what they have been studying; whether or not all types of inflammation whether from a pathogen or an injury can cause an immune response. I think the answer is yes. Before the injury to my legs I didn’t have this disorder. After the injury, I had this disease. The immune system was triggered at the time of injury and after the body healed itself the immune system continued to attack the healthy tissue.

  4. Vena Cava

    How come the blood brain barrier does NOT protect us as well?
    as it should? For example, if you eat McDonalds and the food has MSG, additives, chemicals…all of that goes through the barrier to your brain, So its not doing a very good job at all. So what is it supposed to block? because I think it should block the msg, additives and all the bad stuff we eat

    1. Prince Isaac a (**MJ* 1958-09)

      The brain is very permeable to drugs, alcohol and other substance..Nicotine for example has its receptors all scattered around the brain which makes it hard for smokers to quite smoking. BBB or blood brain barrier has its effect mostly in preventing the crossing of harmful chemicals release by the immune cells and the immune cells itself in crossing over to the brain …so it does little to prevent drugs but much more to provide a separation between the nervous system and the immune system. well in terms of preventing bacteria and viruses does prvent those from entering the brain……there is actually a conception that microglial cells which is the brain’s immune cell might be responsible for the inflammation and destruction of BBB which results in the autoimmune disorder that affects the brain or the idea that the microglial might have misinterpreted the brain’s tissue as a foreign object thereby inviting other immune cells to destroy them. Hope that helps

  5. Chaza

    If i eat an extra 1000 calories than i usually would in one day, would this make me gain weight?
    For example, if i usually eat 1500 calories a day.. and one day i ate 2500 would i gain weight from this day? Thanks!

    1. Cindy in Texas

      Females need 2000 calories a day & males 2500.

      Studies have shown that some people can gain fat stores even on a semi starvation diet of 1000 calories a day – if it’s composition is high carb, low fat. So obviously, calories aren’t the key to fat loss (or gain).

      The only reason any diet works is because you lower carbs when you lower calories.

      One study done showed that a high fat, none carb diet was better than fasting (not eating at all) for fat loss. Both groups lost the same amount of weight, but the fasters lost mainly lean tissues & the eaters lost mainly body fat. Fasting shuts down the metabolism to function on minimal calories & preserves fat stores while using high calorie drain lean tissues for nutrition. Losing lean tissues permanently effects your metabolism.

      It’s been impossible to study high calorie low carb, since protein is fairly self regulating and low carb creates a natural appetite suppression. The highest study I’ve found is 2600 calories. In one discussion group, the calorie theory was under discussion & one lean fellow experimented on himself & added an extra 2000 calories a day in dietary fat to his normal high fat, low carb maintenance level of 2500 calories for a total of 4500 calories a day – an extra 14,000 calories in a week – which according to the calorie theory should add 4# but he lost 1#

      Carbohydrates were never meant to be available in excess year around. Carbohydrates were only meant to be available in excess during harvest season. Carbs trigger an almost insatiable appetite so you can eat them in almost unlimited quantities. Carbs put your body in ‘storage’ mode to store as much fat as possible so we could survive winters & famine.

      Carbs (greater than 9g per hour) trigger the only fat storage hormone, insulin. When insulin dominates the blood stream other hormones – glucagon, sex hormones like testosterone & human growth hormone aren’t able to function properly. Glucagon is so busy “tempering” insulin, it’s not allowed to do it’s main function, which is burning fat for fuel.

      As long as you have <9grams carbs per hour, you will maintain insulin control & shouldn't gain weight, no matter the calories because insulin, the fat storage hormone is not activated.

      There is NO evidence to substantiate the calorie theory. It may sound logical, but the body is built for survival & does not follow logical mathematical equations. *If* you research how they determine what a calorie is you may wonder, like I do, what that has to do with the human body - using foods as fuel to heat water has no correlation to the human body.

      Gary Taubes spent 7 years going over all the studies on nutrition, which is the basis of his recent book "Good calories, Bad calories"

      He makes a case based on substantiated scientific studies that -

      > Obesity is a disorder of excess fat accumulation, not overeating & not sedentary behaviour.

      > Consuming excess calories does not cause us to grow fatter, any more than it causes a child to grow taller.

      Excess protein will be converted to glucose (whether you are in glycolysis or ketosis) *unless* your fat ratio is greater than 80% of total calories.

      Low carb works for fat loss by the body releasing excess fat & not forcing excess fat off. The body is built for survival – lower calories & it will slow the metabolism to function on fewer calories & catabolize it’s own lean tissues as an energy drain. The body adjusts occasionally, making sure there is plenty of nutrition. The worst thing you can do is cut calories & carbs. I recommend increasing calories & carbs to reassure the body that there is not a famine.

      Fat won’t make you fat (but a low fat, high carb diet can). Fat is essential to good health. (not including transfats) & supports a strong immune system & helps hormones to function properly. Fat tempers the devastating health effects of carbohydrates. Fat is needed to make the vitamins & minerals in your foods (like calcium & vit.D in milk or alpha and beta carotene and lycopene in vegs) bioavailable so they can be incorporated into the body structure. Most people do better with a higher level of fat than with less, even if the body is being fueled by carbs & not fat.

      The body can not release body fat stores until the bloodstream is clear of insulin. Carbs greater than 9grams per hour trigger insulin. Insulin is the only fat storage hormone.

      I am adamantly opposed to low calorie dieting because most people lose a good portion of lean tissue (including vital organs like the heart) along with fat stores. Low calories slow the metabolism to function on fewer calories. Low calories convert dietary protein to a very inefficient fuel, forcing the body to catabolize it’s own lean tissues for nutrition. There is no nutrition in fat stores, only energy.

  6. student

    How do pills that help you recover from the flu help your immune system? Like academically can anyone explain.?
    I just wanted to know what ingredients in pills make a difference in you immune system when you have like the flu for example and how they help.

    1. Em

      In general, medicines work by:
      * Replacing substances that are deficient or missing in the body,
      * Altering the activity of cells, or
      * Destroying infectious micro-organisms or abnormal cells
      Altering the activity of cells
      Cells are the basic ‘building blocks’ of the body. All human tissue is made up of groups of cells.

      Many medicines work by altering the activity of cells. For example, anti-inflammatory medicines such as ibuprofen and diclofenac block the action or stop the production of chemical substances (mediators) which are released by cells in response to tissue damage and which cause inflammation and pain.

      Medicines which interfere with the way cells work are used to treat a variety of conditions, such as blood clotting disorders (eg. anti-coagulants ), heart (eg. calcium channel blockers ) and kidney diseases.

      Some medicines work by attaching themselves (binding) to sites found on the surface of cells (receptors) and either increase or decrease the activity of the cell (eg. medicines used in the treatment of epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease).

  7. Tink

    How did auto-immune disorders get thrown into the specialty of rheumatology, instead of immunology?
    I figured that it had to be because some of the connective tissue diseases were later found to be auto-immune, but then I thought maybe it was because so much of the body was connective tissue….

    But it got me thinking, which made me curious.

    Thanks all -Be well

    1. JLI

      Hey Tink – Happy Easter 🙂

      I think it is a matter of which organ system the disease manifests itself in. So I am guessing that your first assumption is correct. For example autoimmune hepatitis is managed by hepatologists, autoimmune gastritis by gastroenterologists etc. These are not connective tissue disorders, but autoimmune disorders of epithelial cells.

    1. anotherep

      The only other system the immune system actually works with is the circulatory system. You could say this because the main mode of transport for immune cells are the blood vessels. The circulatory system allows immune cells to travel throughout the body and survey for infection.

      While the immune system isn’t involved in any other systems, its effects can appear in others in various diseases and infections. Most infections involve immune reactions that occur in the tissue of the digestive tract and there are autoimmune diseases (disorders where the immune system attacks the body instead of a pathogen) for almost any organ you can think of. I can give you some examples:

      Nervous system – Multiple sclerosis – the immune system attacks the myelin sheath of neurons leading to impaired ability to conduct nerve impusles resulting in increasing paralysis and discoordination

      Skeletal system – Rheumatoid arthritis – the immune system attacks the synovial membranes that lubricate joints causing inflammation at the joints

      Muscular system – Myasthenia gravis – the immune system attacks the synapse between motor neurons and muscles impairing the ability to tell muscles when or when not to contract resulting in muscle weakness and spasms

      Endocrine system – type I diabetes – immune system attacks the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin resulting in high blood glucose due to insulin deficiency

      Digestive system – Celiac’s Disease – immune system attacks gluten in the intestines leading to an over reactive response that damages nearby tissue

      and the list goes on!

  8. acount deleted

    How much do lactation consultations make? And what experience do you need?
    Every time I speak with a lactation consultation they tell me I should become one. They say I am the perfect example of how to nurse multiple children and am quite a pro.

    I been breastfeeding for the past 48 months straight. I just had my third child. And my 23 month old still nurses for comfort. Mainly at night time or when hurt.

    So what else do you need to become a lactation consultation?

    1. meb33

      I’m not sure about how much they make, but ignore all the rude comments and keep breastfeeding.

      This is from Dr. Sears:

      The incidence of many illnesses, both childhood and adult, are lowered by breastfeeding — diabetes, heart disease, and central nervous system degenerative disorders (such as multiple sclerosis) to name a few. The most fascinating studies show that the longer and more frequently a mom nurses her baby, the smarter her child is likely to become. The brain grows more during the first two years of life than any other time, nearly tripling in size from birth to two years of age. It’s clearly a crucial time for brain development, and the intellectual advantage breastfed babies enjoy is attributed to the “smart fats” unique to mom’s breast milk (namely, omega-3 fatty acid, also known as DHA). From head to toe, babies who breastfeed for extended periods of time are healthier overall. They tend to have leaner bodies with less risk of obesity. They also have improved vision, since the eye is similar to the brain in regards to nervous tissue. They have better hearing due to a lower incidence of ear infections. Their dental health is generally good, since the natural sucking action of the breastfed infant helps incoming teeth align properly. Intestinal health is also much better than those of non-breastfed babies, as breast milk is easier to digest, reducing spit-up, reflux, and constipation. A toddler’s immune system functions much better since breastmilk contains an immunoglobulin (IGA) which coats the lining of the intestines, which helps prevent germs from penetrating through. Even the skin of these babies is smoother and more supple.

  9. Iky

    Is there a scientific explanation for mixed blood people?
    I noticed that most of the mixed blood people are beautiful and possessed physical beauty, why? What is the advantage for crossbreed genetic, i meant the mixed blood people? do they have a strong immune system and possessed good quality of both parent?

    1. xav_quetzal

      Mixed parentage/blood/ethnicity, whatever you call it, does not guarantee superiority in looks, health, etc. Genetics is not as simple as that, however, different ethnicity and people from different geographical areas do contribute to minor genetic variations. This sometimes also have to do with history of pedigree, especially important and associated with big words such as genetic drift, founder effect, bottleneck etc. Certain people from a particular region is susceptible to genetic disorder including thalassemia (Mediterranean), Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (old order Amish), Tay-Sachs disease (Ashkenazi Jews) and Huntington’s disease (western Europeans). So, not necessary by marrying somebody of different races/ethnic group guarantees better body blueprint. It boils down to genetic interplay.

      Good and beneficial traits from 2 ethnicities may be inherited in the progeny but not necessary so. It depends on various genetic interaction such as epistatis, genomic imprinting and other complicated stuffs. For the looks, not all mixed parentage results in a more-than-normal pretty faces. Perhaps the parents are already remarkably good-looking. Sometimes it is just that the special features of the looks of mixed parentage (since it is a merge of 2 different sets of features from 2 ethnicity resulting in a unique blend) that captivates you. For example, a hybrid of 2 different orchids will give you a new variant which has both phenotypes/physical appearance derived from the parents. The blend in appearance is exotic and special. To some, they call this beautiful. Others may even say it is ugly. But actually, it is just unique in its own way. Unique can mean pretty or otherwise. All these could be genetics, or it could be plain psychological.

      As for immunity, it is not necessary have something to do with ethnicity. Even people from the same ethnicity can produce a much more immune-fit offspring. What I mean is, yes, there might be a probability that a mixed ethnic person could inherit the better immunity from the parents but the thing is, do you know which race/ethnic group has better immunity than the others so that you can have a better offspring with the people from that ethnic group? I think not. Not one ethnic group is better off than the other, in general. Unless, the particular person came from a small province which is known to have a longer average lifespan (in China) or the people there are immune to certain disease because they were infected earlier and developed herd immunity (such as cases of pandemic flu). But as a whole, there is no such thing as mixed blood = superiority/better quality. It depends on the interaction between genetics and environment/diet/lifestyle. For the beauty, the face structure is determined by the genes from both father and mother. So the look is the hybrid of both gene sets, just like non-mixed blood. Nothing special. Genetics doesn’t care about ethnicity. It just work out the way the genetic code tells it to.

  10. james

    Is the whole theory of depression resulting from lack of serotonin in the brain just a scam to sell meds ?
    If it were true then how come so many people who take anti depressants that boost serotonin are still depressed ?
    do these meds cause more of a problem than actually cure ? example ; side effects , dependancy ?

    1. Mattie

      It’s true regarding clinial depression that results from a physical bodily cause, but depression resulting from circumstances in a persons life e.g. a relative dying is not stemmed from serotonin levels, its only useful to administer anti-depressants if the disorder arises from a purely physical neurological dysfunction
      People who take anti-depressants will feel better for a short while but like people get ‘immune’ to recreational drugs and alcohol, people get used to the effects of AD and their impact lessens over time and eventually you’ll need higher dosages to feel the effects, so imo they cause more problems than they cure!

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