Breast augmentation is on some women's mind for ever. There are various methods of doing it and breast implants are one of the most known and controversial one. Since it's an invasive method, meaning that in involves surgery, breast implants problems are not at all impossible to occur. Many things can go wrong and before taking the important decision of undergoing such a procedure, every woman needs to be informed and to analyze the potential risks of her action.

Some experts suggest that there is a connection between breast implants and certain serious of even fatal diseases. Research still needs to be done concerning this theory because nothing is for sure yet. Autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis seem to be linked with breast implants and the medical community is still researching this hypothesis. However, one thing is for sure. Breast implants problems include the fact that they interfere with mammography screenings and they prevent x-rays from revealing abnormalities in the breast tissue.

Breast implants are done using either silicone or saline. Both types have risks and can develop problems in time. When one undergoes surgery, certain complications can occur, regardless how good their surgeon is or how much care is taken when performing the procedure. Infections are among the most common complications in case of surgery. If an infection occurs, the implant needs to be removed, the infection treated and then the woman can opt for another implant. Untreated infections can aggravate and even jeopardize one's life.

Breast implant problems that are also likely to occur include capsular contracture and rupture. They can happen to both silicone and saline implants. The only difference is that rupture in saline implants becomes visible sooner. Capsular contraction can only be solved with another surgery and there is no guarantee that once fixed it will remain like this. It can put a woman through very severe pains and sometimes it can result in complications because the breast tissue can mix with the capsule and require to be surgically removed. Rupture can appear at any point in the implant's life, sometimes even after 10 years from the initial surgery. It can have a multitude of causes and accidents are the most frequent ones. It also needs to be surgically fixed, by actually taking the implant out. In silicone implants a rupture can allow the silicone to migrate in the breast tissue and into other body parts. Women with breast implants rupture often need to also undergo a mastectomy.

Breast implants problems are real and every woman needs to be aware of the fact that having an implant is not as simple as going to the hospital and coming back home with increased breast size.

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immune disorders in women

29 thoughts on “Immune Disorders In Women

  1. Anonymous

    Is it possible to have your DNA altered for cosmetic effects?
    I saw a news story the other day where I woman was going under for some kind of DNA surgery I guess and it was to alter her appearance. Instead of having brown hair, they were going to try to change her DNA so over the next couple years, her hair would grow back red. Is this even possible? It sounds like science fiction!

    1. jme20

      I’m not totally up to date with biotechnologies but I can say with about 90% surety that this story is not true. DNA can be altered, they do it with things called retroviruses. The actual mechanics of it are a bit complicated but basically one gene is replaced with a new one from a different source. This technology is very much in the early stages and while it has been tried in some medical treatments, usually in highly experimental cases, but only when no other options are available, usually for genetic disorders and immune deficiencies.
      Also this area of science and medicine is highly controversial, many people object to ‘playing God’ and possible unforeseen consequences of altering someone/somethings DNA. Therefore if this technology was available it would probably be quite a news story (radical cosmetic surgery stories usually do).
      I’d say it was not true, but like I said, I don’t know for sure.

  2. Ana

    How can a woman be hemophilic?
    I’ve learned that there are 5 ways a woman could be hemophilic, but I need some extra explanation.

    a) she is a daughter of a carrier mother and sick father
    b) in case of XO, Turner syndrome – how exactly does this happen?
    c)in case of X-autosome translocation – what does this mean and what happens here to cause hemophilia?
    d) in case of normal X chromosome inactivation in key cells, where the gene is expressed – how does x-inactivation happen and how can it lead to hemophilia?
    e) new mutations

  3. Crystal

    How important is sleep for a strong immune system?
    I’ve been eating really healthy, and getting exercise, but I’ve gotten sick twice already. Both colds have ended up ear infections.
    I haven’t been getting enough sleep though. Is it really that important for a strong immune system?

    1. Ro

      wow sleep is the number one thing you should be concerned about, then the rest of what you are doing.
      if you do not get enough sleep you will keep getting sick…end of story. your body needs rest to build up more immunity.

      The Harvard Women’s Health Watch suggests six reasons to get enough sleep:

      1. Learning and memory: Sleep helps the brain commit new information to memory through a process called memory consolidation. In studies, people who’d slept after learning a task did better on tests later.
      2. Metabolism and weight: Chronic sleep deprivation may cause weight gain by affecting the way our bodies process and store carbohydrates, and by altering levels of hormones that affect our appetite.
      3. Safety: Sleep debt contributes to a greater tendency to fall asleep during the daytime. These lapses may cause falls and mistakes such as medical errors, air traffic mishaps, and road accidents.
      4. Mood: Sleep loss may result in irritability, impatience, inability to concentrate, and moodiness. Too little sleep can also leave you too tired to do the things you like to do.
      5. Cardiovascular health: Serious sleep disorders have been linked to hypertension, increased stress hormone levels, and irregular heartbeat.
      6. Disease: Sleep deprivation alters immune function, including the activity of the body’s killer cells. Keeping up with sleep may also help fight cancer

  4. lauriewila_fsbo

    what are the health benefits of castor oil?
    I just received a great answer from a woman here on Yahho Answers. I had inquired about something else, but she mentioned castor oil. I looked it up, and it seems there are many health benefits. If you have any experience with this, please let me know. Thanks! This is the greatest thing, this Yahoo Answeres. YAHOO!

    1. Gar

      Castor Oil has many added health benefits which most people are unaware of. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has categorized castor oil as “generally recognized as safe and effective” (GRASE) for over-the-counter use as a laxative. However, it is not a preferred treatment for constipation.

      Undecylenic acid, a castor oil derivative, is also FDA-approved for over-the-counter use on skin disorders or skin problems.

      Ricinoleic acid is the main component of castor oil and it exerts anti-inflammatory effects.

      One study has found that castor oil decreased pain more than ultrasound gel or Vaseline during extracorporeal shock wave application.

      Therapeutically, modern drugs are rarely given in a pure chemical state, so most active ingredients are combined with excipients or additives. Castor oil, or a castor oil derivative such as Cremophor EL (polyethoxylated castor oil, a nonionic surfactant), is added to many modern drugs, including:

      Miconazole, an anti-fungal agent;
      Paclitaxel, a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy;
      Sandimmune (cyclosporine injection, USP), an immunosuppressant drug widely used in connection with organ transplant to reduce the activity of the patient’s immune system;
      Nelfinavir mesylate, an HIV protease inhibitor;
      Saperconazole, a triazole antifungal agent (contains Emulphor EL -719P, a castor oil derivative);
      Prograf, an immunosuppressive drug (contains HCO-60, polyoxyl 60 hydrogenated Castor oil);
      Balsam Peru – Castor oil – and Trypsin Topical (contains castor oil);
      Aci-Jel, a gel used to create or maintain the acidity of the vagina (comprises acetic acid/oxyquinoline/ricinoleic acid – vaginal);

      The use of cold pressed castor oil in folk medicine predates government regulations. Cold pressed castor oil is tasteless and odorless when pure. Uses include skin problems, burns, sunburns, skin disorders, skin cuts, abrasions, etc.

      The oil is also used as a rub or pack for various ailments, including abdominal complaints, headaches, muscle pains, inflammatory conditions, skin eruptions, lesions, and sinusitis. A castor oil pack is made by soaking a piece of flannel in castor oil, then putting it on the area of complaint and placing a heat source, such as a hot water bottle, on top of it. This remedy was often suggested by the American Healing Psychic, Edgar Cayce, given in many healing readings in the early to mid-1900s

  5. Stargirl

    How is yoga beneficial for men, women, and kids?
    I’m doing a paper on yoga and my points are how it is beneficial for men, women, and kids. Are the benefits different enough to get a good paper out of it or should I change my points? If you do think this is a good way to lay out my paper, what are the different benefits? Please give me some websites or other sources because no matter how I lay it out, my paper has to be about yoga! Thanks!

  6. Ingrid

    What causes women to be infertile or have fertility problems?
    What makes a lot of women not able to conceive? What are the main reasons for infertility? I’m just curious, I just had a daughter last week who I got pregnant with really fast, but my twin sister is having a hard time having a baby.

    1. Anjel

      I am dealing with same problem and I think main reasons are No Ovulation,short leuteal phase,Blocked tubes or hormonal problem might make a woman infertile.

      Causes of female infertility

      The most common causes of female infertility include fallopian tube damage or blockage, endometriosis, ovulation disorders, elevated prolactin, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), early menopause, benign uterine fibroids and pelvic adhesions.

      ■Fallopian tube damage or blockage. Fallopian tube damage usually results from inflammation of the fallopian tube (salpingitis). Chlamydia, a sexually transmitted disease, is the most frequent cause. Tubal inflammation may go unnoticed or cause pain and fever. Tubal damage is the major risk factor of a pregnancy in which the fertilized egg is unable to make its way through the fallopian tube to implant in the uterus (ectopic pregnancy). One episode of tubal infection may cause fertility difficulties. The risk of ectopic pregnancy increases with each occurrence of tubal infection.
      ■Endometriosis. Endometriosis occurs when the uterine tissue implants and grows outside of the uterus — often affecting the function of the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes. These implants respond to the hormonal cycle and grow, shed and bleed in sync with the lining of the uterus each month, which can lead to scarring and inflammation. Pelvic pain and infertility are common in women with endometriosis.
      ■Ovulation disorders. Some cases of female infertility are caused by ovulation disorders. Disruption in the part of the brain that regulates ovulation can cause low levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Even slight irregularities in the hormone system can affect ovulation. Specific causes of hypothalamic-pituitary disorders include injury, tumors, excessive exercise and starvation.
      ■Elevated prolactin (hyperprolactinemia). The hormone prolactin stimulates breast milk production. High levels in women who aren’t pregnant or nursing may affect ovulation. An elevation in prolactin levels may also indicate the presence of a pituitary tumor. In addition, some drugs can elevate levels of prolactin. Milk flow not related to pregnancy or nursing can be a sign of high prolactin.
      ■Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In PCOS, your body produces too much androgen hormone, which affects ovulation. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and obesity.
      ■Early menopause (premature ovarian failure). Early menopause is the absence of menstruation and the early depletion of ovarian follicles before age 35. Although the cause is often unknown, certain conditions are associated with early menopause, including immune system diseases, radiation or chemotherapy treatment, and smoking.
      ■Benign uterine fibroids. Fibroids are benign tumors in the wall of the uterus and are common in women in their 30s. Occasionally they may cause infertility by blocking the fallopian tubes.
      ■Pelvic adhesions. Pelvic adhesions are bands of scar tissue that bind organs after pelvic infection, appendicitis, or abdominal or pelvic surgery. This scar tissue formation may impair fertility.
      Other causes. A number of other causes can lead to infertility in women:

      ■Medications. Temporary infertility may occur with the use of certain medications. In most cases, fertility is restored when the medication is stopped.
      ■Thyroid problems. Disorders of the thyroid gland, either too much thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism) or too little (hypothyroidism), can interrupt the menstrual cycle and cause infertility.
      ■Cancer and its treatment. Certain cancers — particularly female reproductive cancers — often severely impair female fertility. Both radiation and chemotherapy may affect a woman’s ability to reproduce. Chemotherapy may impair reproductive function and fertility in men and women.
      ■Other medical conditions. Medical conditions associated with delayed puberty or amenorrhea, such as Cushing’s disease, sickle cell disease, HIV/AIDS, kidney disease and diabetes, can affect a woman’s fertility.
      ■Caffeine intake. Excessive caffeine consumption reduces fertility in the female.

  7. gabbygyrl02

    What is Dehydroepiandrosterone and is it safe for a woman to take??
    I heard that you can purchase Dehydroepiandrosterone at GNC. Does this mean its safe? Can I take it for awhile or should the time be limited?

    1. rockinpacker

      All these quick-fixes for fat reminded us of DHEA, a wonder compound of the 1990s. DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) was supposed to be the Vise Grips of drugs. snake oil?Like the all-powerful super-pliers, it was expected to solve problems yet undiscovered. It was (to overstate it slightly) the cure for which there was no unsusceptible disease.

      In studies over the past 10 years, this naturally occurring hormone prevented cancer and helped fight viruses, mostly in rodents. It restored vitality and libido to the aged and happiness to the depressed, and even slowed the tentacles of Alzheimer’s disease. It made vaccines more effective in the elderly, and lowered bad (LDL) cholesterol, thus presumably protecting the heart and arteries.

      Just when we began hoping that DHEA would fight flab and change the oil in the old Chevy… along came evidence that DHEA could increase insulin sensitivity, a primary cause of adult-onset diabetes. This blood-sugar disorder affects about 14 million Americans, according to the American Diabetes Association.

      And it does seem that large doses of DHEA can help fight the bulge — at least if you’re a dog. In a study to be published in Obesity Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison scientists Ilene Kurzman and Gregory MacEwen fed a group of dogs a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Half of the dogs — chosen at random — also got a high dose of DHEA, but their identity was not known to the researchers during the study.

      DHEA worked: while the control dogs lost 5.5 percent of excess body weight per month, the group treated with DHEA lost 10 percent, says Kurzman.

      Meet the cure-all
      But long before these results were due for publication, DHEA had gained a reputation as a cure-all. After Food and Drug Administration regulations were changed in 1994, it began appearing on drug store shelves as a “dietary supplement.”

      Yet despite years of study and a great deal of new enthusiasm, DHEA is not something that can be recommended for controlling obesity, or much else either. “I would not recommend it for weight loss,” says MacEwen, a professor of veterinary medicine who’s studied DHEA for almost a decade. “When you look at the rodent studies, you see that they were feeding it at about 0.1 percent of total diet.”

      fat cell That’s a lot — about 100 times the dose per kilogram of body weight in the pills at your drugstore. (Dietary supplement pills are formulated to restore the DHEA level to what’s in the blood of a 30-year-old.)

      Furthermore, as MacEwen points out, most of the obesity research has been done in mice and rats. “But a rodent is not a small human, and DHEA may have a totally different effect in people.” Specifically, rodents normally have much less DHEA than humans do, so they’re not necessarily a good species to test the effects of supplements.

      What do we know about DHEA?
      It’s a natural hormone produced by the adrenal gland (that’s the little critter hitchhiking on the kidney). The concentration peaks in humans about age 25 — (need we add at the time of peak health and vitality? OK, we added it).

      From that peak, blood levels decline at about 2 percent per year, raising the prospect that the hormone’s disappearance could be linked to all sorts of problems of aging.

      Like “not getting it” about cyber-electro-funk music? No. Like decreased immune function, heart attacks, and gaining weight.

      It’s not known whether DHEA is actually a hormone, or just a precursor (“raw material”) for the hormones testosterone and estrogen. If it’s a precursor, then taking supplements could be dangerous — since estrogen and testosterone can both speed the development of cancers. Indeed, MacEwen says, the only side effect seen in his dog study was an increase in aggressiveness, as the dogs “tended to take on male characteristics toward other dogs.” And that’s a sign that DHEA is being converted into testosterone.

      Can “natural” be a handicap?
      And since DHEA is a natural product, it cannot be patented, depriving drug companies of the incentive to fund research.

      Despite these roadblocks, researchers have tried DHEA in new ways, and gotten some intriguing results in small studies. beneficial effects of DHEA in humans was virtually nonexistentIn recent work, Owen Wolfkowitz of the University of California, San Francisco, gave DHEA to six depressed elderly people, with positive results. Stating the case in lucid terms, he wrote, “These preliminary results raise the possibility [that blood levels of DHEA and a related compound] may be pathophysiologically relevant and are amenable to pharmacologic treatment.” (Press for translation.)

      Other scientists have been researching whether DHEA increases the immune response to vaccinations, retards the development of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, and helps the heart by reducing atherosclerosis.

      In each case, the evidence is suggestive. And yet, taken as a whole, John Nestler, a Medical College of Virginia endocrinologist who organized a 1996 conference on DHEA, remains cautious. “One can almost hear the hucksters calling out: ‘Come get your DHEA, come get your Fountain of Youth. Cures all that ails you. Helps you live forever.”

      Despite the hype, he wrote, evidence for a real human effect was mixed — and scanty. “DHEA was reputed to remedy almost any bodily ill, even though evidence for the beneficial effects of DHEA in humans was virtually nonexistent, and its cellular or molecular mechanism(s) of action remained a mystery.” (See “Scientific Verdict Still Out” in the bibliography).

      And this from a guy who thought DHEA was worth studying…

      Want to read more about fast fixes for fat?

    1. Get Smart

      Could be a fungal infection. Get checked out by a gyno, and get an anti-fungal ointment. Does it itch? Get cked out for STD’s while there.
      It could also be a genetic lightening of the skin, immune disorder.that comes on as we age.

  8. Bob J

    Not specifically a biology question but wanted your opinion on a book?
    There has been a book published, Descent of Man the author Steven Jones it states males are biologically fragile and unstable, in comparison to women, and that tostesterone weakens the male immune system and heart, that is why men die earlier than women. Has anyone here read the book?, is he a nutjob or is he respected among the academic community.
    If your male do you not have the right to be filled with RAGE.
    So much for equality
    There is no way this could be written about women.

    1. ByrningDowntheHouse

      I haven’t read that particular book, but I sure read a lot of books on similar subjects.

      While he’s taking it too far, much of that is true.

      Men are: more willing to take risks, likely to die younger, more fragile as fetuses and children, and more likely to get certain mental disorders
      Oh and yes, testosterone does weaken the immune system.

      I still think being a guy is great, though. We’re just a lot less well-rounded.

  9. resq-girl

    Are there any pregnant women that have had the H1N1 virus and are fine now after treatment?
    What was the very first symptom you noticed?
    I want to be clear with my question, I am not referring to the vaccine, I am referring to the actual virus.

    1. Emilys-Mommy<3

      I have not had h1n1 but I did get the vaccine which was a very hard decision I cried before I got it because its still kinda new and they couldnt tell me for sure my baby or I would have no side effects. But I had an autoimmune disorder as a child which is a lot better now. But as a pregnant woman with that the harmful effects of h1n1 could have been deadly (so I was told) with a bad immune system. Anyways I got it. My baby is fine, she is fully formed and normal and I got it around 15wk im now 22. Everythings great. Also my husband just got over h1n1 we were pretty safe not to pass it but as you know it is airborne and I never got it. And now hes over it. So i think the vaccine works well. If you are worried about h1n1 I would get the vaccine but its totally up to you. I was skeptical of it and am very glad now i have it. One of my husbands friends died from it in october (he was 22) and I dont know any pregnant women who have had it. But for that one whos died I know 10 who got over it.
      I hope I helped. I do not want to scare you this is just my experiance around it. I am not a doctor. Its just something you should consider. =)

  10. Sparkle

    What specifically causes a risk to the fetus if you eat sushi?
    I have been doing some research and can not find a plausable reason to why some books state pregnant women shouldnt eat sushi.
    I accept that home made sushi due to uncooked fish may cause food poisioning which may make the mother sick, however reputable sushi restuarants usually freeze the freshest fish before hand to kill parasites and chill the fish.

    In Japan many doctors actually encourage pregnant women to eat sushi. I actually asked my doctor and he said he didnt know of any parasites that could effect the fetus.

    Can anyone give me a sensible scientific or medical reason why sushi should not be eaten when pregnant.

  11. Angelina J.

    What should a man do if he gave the humane papillomavirus to his girlfriend?
    How does he get tested and how can it be treated?

    Plus, if a man gave it a woman, could a woman tell from who she got it from in case she had multiple partners?

    PS this is not about me!
    O yes, the woman is already being treated for uterus cancer. But what should the man do? Is it unharmful for men?

    1. jango210

      First its Human Papillomavirus (HPV). The HPV ranges from simple warts (anywhere) to several types of cancer to no symptoms. There are no tests to decide whether or not a person gave someone HPV, but there are tests to find out if you have HPV.
      HPV can be transmitted in more than one way, it can be transmitted by having sex with someone or by shaking the hand of someone how has a wart. Sex is the most contagious way to acquire HPV while getting through general contact is low but possible.
      It is harmful to both men and women, depending where HPV develops in the body it can become cancerous. Healthy immune systems can fight off HPV or in the case of skin warts they can be treated by freezing them off. Cancerous HPV is treated the same way any other cancer is treated.
      As for what you should do, if warts develop have them treated by suggestion of a doctor. If it develops into something harmful i.e cancer or a rare respiratory disorder there’s nothing YOU can do. Just be supportive and thoughtful.

  12. Steph

    What is a good thesis statement for legalization of medical marijuana?
    I’m having a little writer’s block today. Paper is due tomorrow, but I cannot think of a good thesis statement! Can anyone help me?

    By the way, I am for legalization of medical marijuana due to relief of symptoms in patients suffering from terminal illnesses as well as some psychological disorders. But I need one more reason and I need the thesis to flow smoothly!


    1. Seidhr of Orlog

      The Gateway Theory:
      “If you speak with the parents of children who have died from the use of hard drugs most of them will inevitably tell you that they started with the use of marijuana.” – Robert Mueller – Director of FBI
      “The gateway theory doesn’t work. They (hard drug users) likely started by drinking milk, then moved to beer and then to booze etc. Obviously we are not going to agree on this.” Representative Steve Cohen, Democrat, Tennessee – In response to Robert Mueller’s claim.
      The World Health Organization – “the gateway theory is the least likely of all hypotheses”.

      Medical Uses:
      “The truth is cannabinoids kills a large variety of cancer cells. And these have been documented… we have compounds from cannabis that inhibits breast cancer growth, colon cancer, rectal cancer, glaucoma, leukemia, lymphoma, lung cancer, fetal, chromosomal, Sidamo, prostate, skin, thyroid and more… Cannabinoids are the oils of life. Do we need the D.E.A. to tell us not to smoke too much marijuana? What if happens if you take too much marijuana? You fall asleep” – University of Colorado Biologist Dr. Robert Melamead
      Accordint to studies done by The Cannabinoid System Network:
      When you smoke weed it activates the cannabinoid system in your brain and body. This is the largest bundle of nerves in the brain and body. It balances your chemicals, makes you hungry, helps you digest food better, gets nutrients to your cells better, dilates your arteries (what every body builder strives for to help reduce ammonia levels, increase oxygen levels and support nutrient delivery), tells the body to make new neurons, brain cells, skin cells and muscle fibers, aids in the learning process (by creating new neural pathways), reduces insulin rejection, balances glucose levels (insulin rejection and high glucose levels are the two main contributing factors to type 2 diabetes), increases lipid production (specifically that of VLDL which converts to LDL, good cholesterol, and lowers HDL, bad cholesterol.), Helps LDL convert to testosterone in men and estrogen in women (so it is effective in hormone treatment), fills out your cells, gives you a greater pain tolerance and helps you sleep better which increases human growth hormone levels(the main hormone responsible for healing and anti-aging), reduces inflammation, opens up your airways and helps you breath better, raises your metabolism (necessary to processing and burning off fat), increases the function of the immune system and, if smoked sparingly and not in large quantities, gives you more energy. These are conditions within the human body that body builders, nutritionists and health experts attempt through strict diet and extensive exercise to duplicate. The conclusion of this and similar studies is concluded…
      “If marijuana were a new discovery and not a well known substance with cultural and political baggage, it would be hailed as a wonder drug” – Journal of Neurology

      Historical uses and current implications:
      The following information comes from the Encyclopedia Britannica, which was printed on Hemp for over 150 years.
      All school books were made from Hemp until the 1880’s. George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and other founding fathers grew hemp. For thousands of years 90% of all ships, sails, and rope were made from Hemp. The word Canvas is Dutch for Cannabis. 80% of all textiles, fabrics, clothes, linings, drapes, bedsheets etc. were all made from hemp until the 1820’s with the invention of the cotton mill. The first bibles, maps, charts, Betsy Ross’s flag, first drafts of the U.S. Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were made from Hemp. Hemp industrialization goes back to ancient Egypt. China began using Hemp industrially and as medication nearly 5,000 years ago. In 1916 the U.S. government predicted that by the 1940’s all paper would come from hemp and that no more trees needed to be cut down. Government studies indicated that 1 acre of Hemp was equal to 4.1 acres of trees, plans were in the works to implement the program. Quality paints and varnishes were made from Hemp seed oil until 1937. 50,000 tons of hemp seeds were used for paint products in 1935. Henry Ford’s first model T was constructed to run on Ethanol made from Hemp and the car itself was constructed from fiberglass made from Hemp, the impact strength was 10 times stronger than steel. Bio diesels, oils and ethanol from hemp can replace over 90% of the world’s energy needs. In 1938 on the cover of popular mechanics the title read “Hemp called billion dollar crop” It was the first time a cash crop had the potential to exceed a billion dollars. Mechanical engineering magazine printed an article entitled, “The most profitable and desirable crop that can be grown”. It stated “If hemp is cultivated using 20th century technology it would be the single largest agricultural crop in the united states and the rest of the world.”

  13. ?

    What exactly is causing this depression?
    Im on two medications which help keep the nervous breakdowns and anxiety under control (in other words, I can sleep.) But im still exhausted and mopey all the time… I really cant help it. I try to exercise everyday, as far as I know my diet is fine, ive had blood tests done and everything is normal… Not to mention my immune system is phenomenal. Just idk, ive been down for almost 2 years and idk the cause of it. What are some possibilities?

    1. nesher9

      There are a number of factors that may increase the chance of depression, including the following:
      •Abuse. Past physical, sexual, or emotional abuse can cause depression later in life.
      •Certain medications. For example, some drugs used to treat high blood pressure, such as beta-blockers or reserpine, can increase your risk of depression.
      •Brain Chemistry Imbalance. Depression is believed to be caused by an imbalance in the neurotransmitters which are involved in mood regulation. Neurotransmitters are chemical substances which help different areas of the brain communicate with each other. When certain neurotransmitters are in short supply, this may lead to the symptoms we recognize as clinical depression.
      •Female Sex Hormones. It has been widely documented that women suffer from major depression about twice as often as men. Because the incidence of depressive disorders peaks during women’s reproductive years, it is believed that hormonal risk factors may be to blame. Women are especially prone to depressive disorders during times when their hormones are in flux, such as around the time of their menstrual period, childbirth and peri-menopause. In addition, a woman’s depression risk declines after she goes through menopause.
      •Conflict. Depression may result from personal conflicts or disputes with family members or friends.
      •Death or a loss. Sadness or grief from the death or loss of a loved one, though natural, can also increase the risk of depression.
      •Genetics. A family history of depression may increase the risk. It’s thought that depression is passed genetically from one generation to the next. The exact way this happens, though, is not known.
      •Major events. Even good events such as starting a new job, graduating, or getting married can lead to depression. So can moving, losing a job or income, getting divorced, or retiring.
      •Other personal problems. Problems such as social isolation due to other mental illnesses or being cast out of a family or social group can lead to depression.
      •Physical conditions. Serious medical conditions like heart disease, cancer, and HIV can contribute to depression, partly because of the physical weakness and stress they bring on. Depression can make medical conditions worse, since it weakens the immune system and can make pain harder to bear. In some cases, depression can be caused by medications used to treat medical conditions.
      •Poor Nutrition. A poor diet can contribute to depression in several ways. A variety of vitamin and mineral deficiencies are known to cause symptoms of depression. Researchers have also found that diets either low in omega-3 fatty acids or with an imbalanced ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 are associated with increased rates of depression. In addition, diets high in sugar have been associated with depression.
      •Personality. People who have low self-esteem, who consistently view themselves and the world with pessimism or who are readily overwhelmed by stress, are prone to depression. Whether this represents a psychological predisposition or an early form of the illness is not clear.
      •Substance abuse. Nearly 30% of people with substance abuse problems also have major or clinical depression.

  14. Jay

    Name 2 disorders or traits that would not demonstrate independent assortment if present in the same family?
    If you can please give a reason and source. If not, don’t post, just to get your points up. Much appreciated.

    1. Bad Brain Punk

      Independent assortment means: “allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes. Therefore, traits are transmitted to offspring independently of one another.”

      This doesn’t happen if somehow the two genes are linked in their inheritance.

      Independent assortment happens by two mechanisms.

      The first is the independent movement of the chromatids during meiosis. So if two genes are on different chromosomes, they will assort independently.

      The second is through the crossing over that occurs between the maternally- and paternally-derived chromosomes during meiosis. This rearranges the alignments of the alleles on the two chromosomes and depends on the distance between the genes – if genes are far enough apart then they behave as though they are on different chromosomes.

      So, to find traits that do not assort independently, you need to find ones that are relatively close together on the same chromosome.

      In actual patients, I would say it is rare to find two separate mutations in nearby genes that cause two independent traits/phenotypes. I know they are out there, but I can’t think of any off hand.

      It is more common to have a deletion of a part of a chromosome that damages or removes two or more genes. This creates a chromosome that always carries the two traits together.

      For example, one segment of the short arm of the X-chromosome has the gene order:
      Xcentromere – RP3 – CGD – XK – DMD – Xptelomere

      Perhaps a few dozen patients have been described carrying a contiguous gene deletion syndrome that encompasses CGD and XK. CGD is chronic granulomatous disease, an immune system disorder. XK is McLeod Syndrome, a brain degeneration. The only link between the two diseases is the closeness of the genes making them susceptible to being deleted at the same time when DNA replication goes awry. You can look at the maps at the second link to find other examples – any two mutant genes that are close together could be linked in some patients, but I don’t know for sure which ones might actually have happened.

      There are some special cases. For example, most of the Y chromosome does not recombine, so all genes on it are basically always linked.

      Similarly, mitochondria have their own genome, and we always inherit it from our mothers. So those genes are also always linked.

      Also, Both males and females always inherit an X from their mom as well as the mitochondrial genome. If the X has a defect and the mitochondrial genome carries a mutation, in half the woman’s kids, assortment would appear linked and might take a couple generations to sort out.

      Red and green vision are encoded by different genes that are next to each other on the long arm of the X. It is possible to disrupt both at the same time, creating a unique visual pigment = red vision is disrupted, green vision is disrupted, and a new ‘blended’ vision is created = two traits lost, one added.

      And so on.

      And that is just some info on humans. Drosophila, and other model organisms also have extensive linkage maps available.

      You can search the biomedical literature at the third link if you want to find out more.

      Hope that’s helpful.

  15. dreamer(:

    Does the media really have that big of an impact?
    Everyone says that the media is making it hard for teenage girls in particular to be confident. It’s allegedly causing eating disorders, drug addictions, etc.. I am fifteen years old and my friends and I have never been dragged into anything like that due to media influence. I don’t know anybody that has.

    I know it does put a little more pressure on us, but I don’t really think it drives people to extreme measures the press keeps saying it does.

    What are your opinions?

    1. screaming_through_insanity

      A little yes and a little no.

      Young women and girls are under enormous pressure to conform to unreasonable standards set by the media. You say that neither you nor your friends are affected. We’d all say that, though. Nobody wants to believe that they’re easily swayed by the media. How can you truly say what influence the media has over you, when you think you are immune to their influence?

      Who told you to buy the clothes you’re wearing? The food you bought? The car you drive? The media. Why do you think that you’re immune to this aspect, when you’re so easily swayed in every other aspect?

      It’s not just eating disorders, drug addiction, and other major problems. It’s also the systematic destruction of every woman’s self esteem. Look at the magazines, marketed to women: none of them say, “You’re perfect just the way you are.” All of them browbeat women into thinking they are not good enough, then run ads by companies selling ways to finally become good enough and happy enough. If the magazines stopped attacking the self-esteem of women, the advertisers would pull all their ads.

      I agree with the feminists who decry the state of our society. I think something needs to be done. While not every girl is impacted as strongly as the ones who descend into drug addiction, eating disorders, and suicide, plenty are miserable because they can’t look like the impossible pictures the media presents to them.

      On the other hand, I also think you’d have to be a bit weak-willed to actually buy into all the nonsense the media feeds you. The problem is, not everyone can be as confident and strong-willed as you and your friends.

      I suggest reading some feminist theory. It’s really intriguing stuff. I don’t necessarily agree with radical feminists, like Andrea Dworkin, about everything she ever said, but it opened my eyes to different viewpoints and made me think about what I believe.

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