Hormonal imbalances during adolescence or menopause:
Hormonal imbalances occurring during the adolescence or menopause stage is the most common source of heavy menstrual bleeding. As it is these two stages which trigger fluctuations in hormone levels and this often leads to excessive uterine bleeding during the menstrual periods. Younger women usually have heavy bleeding due to of an irregular menstrual cycle as an adolescent may go for several monthswithout a period, but the lining of her uterus continues to build up. When finally the body sheds the uterine lining, she may experience very heavy bleeding. This condition if prolonged can cause Hyperplasia – a condition in which the lining of the uterus becomes too thick, which results in abnormal bleeding and cancer in a large number of cases.
This condition of Menorrhagia can be treated successfully with birth control pills or other hormonal supplements.
These are very tiny, brittle growths that occur in either the mucosal surface of the endo-cervical canal or the opening of the cervix. The cause of cervical polyps is often considered to be the result of an abnormal response to increased levels of the female hormone, estrogen or Clogged blood vessels in the cervix or Chronicinflammation. Women who are commonly affected by cervical polyps are those over the age of twenty and who have had children. The possible complications with this condition would be that some cervical cancers may first emerge out as a polyp.
A simple procedure, through which the growth can be removed using antibiotics, is the normal treatment for cervical polyps.
Excessive menstruation is also caused due to uterine fibroid tumors. These fibroid tumors are usually non-cancerous tumors that often occur in the uterus of women in their thirties and forties. Most often these fibroids occur as small growths which grow slowly with hidden symptoms. The size of the fibroids varies among different women, a few may have small microscopic fibroids and some experience a single large tumor, the size of a grapefruit or a fibroid which is so large it covers the entire abdominal area. The cause of these uterine fibroid tumors is quiet dependant on the estrogen produced in the women’s body from the onset of menstruation and often shrinks aftermenopause. The uterine fibroids usually do not cause any serious diseases unless it grows large enough to interfere with other organs. They can also cause severe back pain, constipation, frequent urge to urinate and swollen abdomen.
Several surgical treatments are available for treating fibroid tumors of the uterus which includes endometrial ablation, uterine artery embalization, myomectomy, uterine balloon therapy, and hysterectomy. Non-surgical treatments for fibroid tumors like GnRH agonists, androgens, RU486 (the abortion pill), oral contraceptives, and gestrinone are also very effective.
Lupus is a persistent inflammatory, autoimmune disease which affects several parts of the body, particularly the joints, blood, skin, and kidneys. The cause of lupus is generally seen in patients who have are genetically inclined to outer environmental factors such as infections, UV light, severe stress, hormones, certain types of antibiotics particularly sulpha, penicillin, and certain other drugs. The symptoms of Lupus vary widely among patients. The course of the disease is capricious, with periods of illness alternating withremissions. The disease occurs especially in women in child-bearing years between ages 15 to 35, and is commonly found in those of non-European descent
The treatments like symptoms vary from avoiding stress to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications like NSAIDS, steroids, antimalarials, acetaminophen, immunosuppressive drugs, cytoxic, or anticoagulants drugs.
Endometrial polyps are non-cancerous growths which protrude from the lining of the uterus. They are often associated with an excess production of estrogen subsequent to some hormone treatment or due to some types of ovarian tumors or also in an obese person with a body mass index of 30 or more. A current study does link the chance of malignancy in uterine polyps to infertility, cancer, high blood pressure and obesity in women.
The treatment for endometrial polyps includes D&C and hysteroscopy and is most possibly followed by chemotherapy or other radiation treatments. A sample of the endometrial polyps is sent to a pathology lab which will evaluate endometrial polyps for cancer.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease:
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a disease of one or more organs of the female reproductory organ. It directly affects the uterus, cervix and fallopian tubes. This disease is a sexually transmitted disease; however, it sometimes occurs following childbirth, abortion, or other gynecological procedures. The manifestation of this disease can cause Chlamydia infection, a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacteriumChlamydia trachomatis
The recommended treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease is an antibiotic therapy.
7. Gynecologic hemorrhage:
Gynecologic hemorrhagerepresents excessive bleeding of thefemale reproductive system. Such bleeding may possibly be visible externally, or it could be internally into the pelvic cavity. The Causes of gynecologic bleeding include hormonal influence under the influence ofestrogen on theendometrium(uterine lining). The longstanding ovulation can also lead toendometrial hyperplasiaand facilitates the development of endometrial cancer.
Treatments depend on diagnosis and which include IV fluids, hormonal therapy,blood transfusion, or adilation and curettage. Internal bleeding requireslaparoscopyor abdominal surgery.
8. Cervical cancer
Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs when cells in the cervix become abnormal, reproduce unmanageably, and damage healthy parts of the body. The human papillomavirus, or HPV, is the cause of over ninety percent of all cervical cancers. Cervical cancer is the fifth most fatal cancer in women and it affects about 16 per 100,000 women per year and kills about 9 per 100,000 per year.Pap smear screening has greatly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer.
The pre-cancerous changes in the cervix can be detected by aPap smear, in whichepithelialcellsare scraped from the surface of the cervix andexamined under a microscope. With appropriate treatments that include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy of detected abnormalities, cervical cancer can be prevented.
IUDs or intrauterine devices used for contraception are also another potential cause for heavy menstrual bleeding or Menorrhagia. Women who experience prolonged or heavy periods while using the IUD.
The treatment for this would be to remove this device and choose an alternate method of birth control.