Blood typing is a method of determining a person’s blood type by serological methods. These blood types depend on whether or not there are certain antigens on the red blood cells & if there are antibodies to these substances. Blood Typing is also known as – Cross matching, Rh typing & ABO blood typing etc.

Different Blood Groups:

The differences in blood types are due to the presence or absence of certain antigens & corresponding antibodies. Antigens are substances (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates an immune response in the body, especially antibody production. The antigens that decide blood types are located on the surface of red blood cells and the antibodies are in blood plasma.

There are more than 20 genetically determined blood group systems known today, but the ABO and Rh systems are the most important ones with serious clinical implications. Not all blood groups are compatible with each other.

ABO Blood Grouping System

According to the ABO blood typing system there are four different kinds of blood types: A, B, AB or O i.e. the null type.

a€¢ Blood group A: If you belong to the blood group A, you have type A antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and type B antibodies in your blood plasma.

a€¢ Blood group B: If you belong to the blood group B, you have type B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and type A antibodies in your blood plasma.

a€¢ Blood group AB: If you belong to the blood group AB, you have both type A & type B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and no A or B antibodies at all in your blood plasma.

a€¢ Blood group O: If you belong to the blood group O (null), you have neither type A or type B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells but you have both type A & type B antibodies in your blood plasma.

Rh factor based Blood Grouping System

Rh Factor is also an antigen and those who have it are called Rh+. Those who don’t have it are called Rh-. A person with Rh- blood does not have Rh antibodies naturally in the blood plasma but a person with Rh- blood can develop Rh antibodies in the blood plasma if he or she receives blood from a person with Rh+ blood, whose Rh antigens can trigger the production of Rh antibodies. A person with Rh+ blood can receive blood from a person with Rh- blood without any problems.

Blood typing: How does it work?

The test sample blood is mixed with three different reagents in 3 different tubes, each containing either of the three different antibodies i.e. A, B or Rh antibodies. The tube in which agglutination occurs indicates that the blood has reacted with the antibodies present in that tube. Based on agglutination patterns, it’s very easy to learn your blood type.

Blood transfusions: Who can receive blood from whom?

One can always give type A blood to people with blood group A, type B blood to a person with blood group B and so on. The transfusion will work if a person who is going to receive blood has a blood group that doesn’t have any antibodies against the donor blood’s antigens. But if a person who is going to receive blood has antibodies against the donor blood’s antigens, the red blood cells in the donated blood will clump.


2 thoughts on “Lupus Caused By Blood Transfusions

  1. Mindy

    Should I pursue legal action against this surgeon?
    In April of 2010, I had my right ovary and fallopian tube removed as well as endometrial growths on my left ovary and in the back of my uterus. In my post op visit, I was told that I had a severe case of endometriosis, that I still had growths (in other words, they were not all removed), and that my lupus would complicate my treatment. I was then recommended to take medications that are contraindicated to my condition and the medications I am currently on. Of course, I did not take those medications. I was then recommended to drink herbal teas. I was not even given pain medications.

    Months later, I was still having problems. I bled so badly at one time that I was in need of a transfusion. The surgeon refused to see me because I still had a balance from my previous surgery (a mere $150 that I was paying on and even had a written payment agreement). It was an emergency situation, so I sought a second opinion from another surgeon. It turns out I needed a hysterectomy. In the post op report after the hysterectomy, the new surgeon told me that I had extensive nerve damage and needed reconstruction and that I was by far one of the worst cases he has ever seen. He also said that this did not happen overnight and that the first surgeon should have taken care of of it. He called her negligent and a few other colorful names and actually forwarded her the pictures from the surgery. I’m also having complications recovering from my surgery because of my lupus, a condition the previous surgeon knew I had.

    Should I pursue legal action, or would I be wasting my time? I’m not lawsuit happy at all. I work in the medical profession, and I am well aware of what the consequences of malpractice suits are. However, I used up all of my vacation time during the first surgery, had to have a second surgery when it could have been taken care of the first time around and now have NO income for an entire month, and it also caused me a lot of unnecessary pain and suffering (visits to the ER, blood transfusions, lupus flare ups, missed wages, pain, etc).
    Also, I did sign a consent the first time around that I wanted a hysterectomy if there were overwhelming endometrial growths present, which there were. When I awoke from the anesthesia, I found she had not honored my wishes. I asked her why, and she told me she felt I was “too young for a hysterectomy”.
    I sought my second opinion with a surgeon out of the area. I traveled two hours away because he was highly recommended.

    1. MasterOfUniverse

      You could if you can get the second doctor to agree to testify. Without that, even with medical reports, there would be little chance of success in that the hospital has lawyers on staff specifically to win lawsuits and protect the hospital and doctors. Most doctors will not be willing to testify against another doctor, especially locally, due to the doctor relationship with other medical professionals in the area. I would file a complaint with the Medical Review Board though.

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