Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral infection that causes fever, generalized body pain and in severe cases it may also lead to external and internal bleeding.
Dengue fever commonly occurs in the tropics and subtropics regions of world. Mostly it is found in Southeast Asia but now days it is becoming more common in Central and South America. Dengue fever is caused by a virus and spread through mosquitoes.
The Signs and Diagnosis of Dengue Fever
Symptoms of Dengue fever include fever, headache, and severe generalized body aches, particularly in the legs, back and joints and are more severe in adults. These aches are often so painful that the disease is also known as break bone fever.
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a specific syndrome that usually affects children under age group of 10 years. It causes abdominal pain, bleeding, and circulatory shock. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is also called Dengue shock syndrome.
Dengue fever initiates with signs of high fever and headache. There are respiratory and intestinal symptoms with signs of sore throat, cough, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Shock occurs two to six days after the start of symptoms with sudden collapse, cool, clammy extremities, weak pulse, and blueness around the mouth.
Patients of Dengue fever must be on observation for the starting few days since shock may occur or reoccur. Bluish patients are given oxygen. Immediate fluid replacement is required in vascular collapse. To control bleeding Blood transfusions may be needed.
The rate of mortality with Dengue hemorrhagic fever is significant ranging from 6%-30%.
Diagnosis of dengue virus infection is usually made on the basis of clinical sings and symptoms which is not reliable. The classic picture is high fever with no localizing source of infection, a small purplish rash on a body surface with relatively low platelet and white blood cell count.
Dengue diagnosis should always be confirmed by laboratory tests, because more than half of infected individuals either are asymptomatic or have a mild undifferentiated fever.
Laboratory diagnosis of dengue virus infection can be made by the detection of specific virus, viral antigen, genomic sequence, and/or antibodies. Early diagnosis of Dengue virus infection is done by detection of dengue viral antigen in peripheral blood mononuclear cell.