End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) or Kidney Failure is understood to be a state once the kidneys don't function properly or sufficiently, inducing the accumulation of waste material and toxic materials. When toxic wastes build within the blood, they might cause permanent and irreversible harm to body cells, tissues and organs. Thus, to live, kidney function must be replaced through either dialysis or transplantation. An individual can stay healthy with only one kidney. People with kidneys that function below 20% of the required capacity, however, take some form of renal replacement therapy.
Main reasons for End-Stage Renal Disease
Singapore has got the fifth highest incidence of kidney failure on the planet. Every year, about 750 individuals are diagnosed with kidney failure in Singapore.
Diabetes and blood pressure would be the two main reasons for kidney failure. The incidence is alarming with One in every 12 adult Singaporeans suffers from diabetes and One in every 5 adult Singaporeans has hypertension. While the National Health Survey 2004 says the prevalence of those chronic diseases has declined, the big absolute quantity of patients is really a potential time bomb. In 2000, 47% of new cases of end-stage renal disease were because of diabetes.
Other reasons for ESRD include: Inflammatory diseases. Blockage of urinary collecting system. Chronic infections. Rare genetic disorders.
The signs of End Stage Renal Disease
Decreased urination Blood within the urine (tea-coloured or fresh blood) Vomiting and nausea Swollen hands and ankles Puffiness about the eyes Itching Sleep disturbances Hypertension Loss of appetite
When the kidney damage is incorporated in the early stages, it may be controlled with medication and diet. However, there isn't any recovery from End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD).
There's two ways to treat ESRD: dialysis or kidney transplant.
Kidney transplantation is the procedure where a kidney is surgically taken off a donor and implanted in to the patient. The individual may get a kidney from the family member, a spouse or perhaps a close friend. They're known as living-related donors. Probably the most compatible match is generally a sibling, his or her genetic make-up may closely match. Additionally, the patient may also receive a kidney from the recently deceased person, referred to as a cadaveric donor.
Transplantation is definitely the best means of treatment, because the “replacement kidney” can substitute almost fully the lost functions from the failed kidneys, and permit the patient to guide a normal life.
Kidney transplant will be the best strategy to end-stage renal disease. However, the waiting list for kidney transplant is long. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of people awaiting a kidney increased by almost 20% to 673 patients. In 2005, you will find 625 individuals around the waiting list for cadaver renal transplant. The typical waiting time for renal transplant is Many years. Besides, you will find patients that aren't suitable or entitled to transplant due to their medical conditions and age. Hence, they'll need to stick to haemodialysis.