Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) often known as CD289 (cluster of differentiation 289), is a member of the Toll-like receptor family that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular pattern. TLR9 was first cloned and identified as a receptor for unmethylated CpG-DNA as well as for bacterial DNA. It is essential not only for pro-inflammatory cytokine production and other inflammatory responses, but it also plays a role in the induction of T helper 1 (Th1) acquired immune response and in the proliferation of B cells. Like all other members of the TLR family, TLR9 is composed of an extracellular domain containing multiple leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail containing the conserved TIR domain. The TLR9 sequence encodes a 1032 aa protein containing 27 N-terminal LRRs with a calculated molecular weight of 116 kDa . The gene for TLR9 has been mapped to human chromosome 3p21.3. TLR9 is most closely related to TLR7 and TLR8 with 36% and 35% overall amino acid sequence identity, respectively and thus along with TLR7 and TLR8 constitutes a new sub-family of the TLRs.

20 thoughts on “Systemic Lupus Erythematosis

    1. Janie D.


      You may have an EMERGENCY occurring! Is he choking or not breathing??? If so, you need to act immediately!

      If this is NOT what is occurring, there are a number of other possibilities — all still need veterinary care, but are not as immediately dire as the above.

      Information that may be helpful:


      Infectious diseases: Pneumonia due to distemper; parainfluenza; adenovirus-1 or adenovirus-2 infection; secondary bacterial infections; coccidioidomycosis (fungal infection); or aspiration (due to vomiting, cleft palate, improperly administered oral medication or force-feeding, megaesophagus, enlargement/dysfunction of the esophagus).

      Trauma: To the thorax (penetrating wounds, diaphragmatic hernia, tension pneumothorax, fractured ribs, lung injury), trachea, or larynx.

      Non-infectious/Acquired disease: Heart disease (mitral valve disease, cardiomyopathy).

      Allergic reactions: Pneumonitis/ pulmonary hypersensitivity (due to bacteria, fungi, heartworms) or anaphylaxis. (COULD BE CRITICAL & IMMEDIATE)

      Foreign bodies: In nasal passages, larynx, trachea, or foreign material causing bronchial obstruction. (CRITICAL & IMMEDIATE)

      Miscellaneous disorders: Gastric dilatation/volvulus or pulmonary thrombosis (secondary to trauma or surgery). (CRITICAL & IMMEDIATE)

      Irritation/Inflammation: Inhalation of smoke or irritant vapors.

      Toxicity: Strychnine or ANTU, both rodenticides. (CRITICAL)

      Tumors: In larynx, trachea, lungs, or heart.

      Parasites/Parasite-borne diseases: Heartworms or tick paralysis.

      Immune disorders: Pulmonary thrombosis (secondary to immune-mediated hemolytic anemia).

      WHAT TO DO:

      Blue gums or tongue may or may not be an emergency, depending on the cause and other signs of illness. Contact your veterinarian or emergency clinic immediately for specific advice about your dog’s situation.


      Parasites/Parasite-borne diseases: Hookworms (especially in puppies), fleas, heartworms, ehrlichiosis.

      Trauma: At any location, with hemorrhage.

      Toxicity: Anticoagulant rodenticides (warfarin), lead. (CRITICAL)

      Non-infectious/Acquired disease: Chronic kidney disease.

      Tumors: In the liver, stomach, intestines, pancreas, or spleen.

      Endocrine disorders: Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s disease) or hypothyroidism.

      Immune-mediated disorders: Primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia or systemic lupus erythematosis.

      Congenital/Inherited disorders: Portosystemic shunt or chronic hepatitis (in Bedlington Terriers).

      Infectious diseases: Histoplasmosis or salmon poisoning disease.

      Drug reactions: Vaccine-induced thrombocytopenia (platelet deficiency) or drug-induced thrombocytopenia. (CRITICAL)

      Miscellaneous: Gastric dilatation/volvulus (CRITICAL & IMMEDIATE)

      WHAT TO DO:

      Pale gums or tongue may or may not be an emergency, depending on the cause and other signs of illness. Contact your veterinarian or emergency clinic immediately for specific advice about your dog’s situation.

  1. Isadora

    For Muslims , I pluck my eyebrows does that make me cursed?
    I am a Muslim and I read a Hadith in my book of “Feqh of Sunnah” , and I was shocked by this Hadith which curses the girls who wear wegs , pluck their brows and widen the spaces between their teeth artificially.
    Curse is a big word for this , why? WHY?
    Why shall I carry a curse to my grave for removing a single hair from my eyebrows? Is that fair?
    Will Allah like women walking in the streets with hairy brows like the men? Allah is beautiful which loves beauty !
    What if I lost my hair by a chemotherapy or systemic lupus erythematosis , and I wanted to cover my scalp by a weg , Shall I carry a curse to my grave for this too?

    Sorry , I began to question this religion after reading hadiths and my questioning to it will end either by leaving it or attaching to it more , and expect from me more questions about these issues .
    True answers needed and non Muslims are welcomed but without bashing , pls!
    and pls no one tells me that plucking the brows is mutilation for Allah’s creation , we are in the era of the contact lenses and plastic surgeries which totally changes the shape!
    Scotgirl , if you can read Arabic , I will post down this Hadith for you from a cerificated book I had!
    Muslima, I will question everything from now one here and I want the truth and nothing but the truth .
    I will not caryy a religion without questioning every detail in it , and I am waiting for you to participate and tell me that I am wrong .
    I will post the hadith in Arabic if you can read it to prove my words.
    Happily Happy , frankly I knew it is haram 10 years ago from my teachers in the school , but I am doing it and I will do it , and I don’t see that it is a sin to look more clean and pretty!
    Repentance ?! repentance of what?
    Did I steal something? Did I kill someone? repentance for a hair I removed from my brow line?!!!!
    I thumb all my answeres up regardless to their answer as long as it isn’t humilating!
    for those who asked about the Hadith in impolite way , here is its source ,
    عن أبي هريره أن امرأه جاءت إلي النبي صلي الله عليه و سلم فقالت : يا رسول الله إن لي ابنة عروسا و قد تمزق شعرها من حصبه أفأصله؟
    فقال عليه الصلاه و السلام: “لعن الله الواصله و المستوصله , و الواشمه و المستوشمه , و النامصه و المتنمصه , و المتفلجات للحسن المغيرات خلق الله

    1. Rokaya

      isadora, my dear, noone is perfect, and i promise you noone follows islam in 100%. do as much as you can.
      i pluck my eyebrows too but i believe Allah will forgive me if i will fulfill my main duties as Muslim. isn’t He forgiving and marciful?
      and note to all that are very strict in religion – i know i shouldn’t do this, but i do. so if someone want to criticize me please look at yourself first.

  2. spider1138

    Does anyone else have trouble convincing their doctor that discoid lupus is a delibitating illness?
    I was diagnosed with DL fifteen years ago and at first it was bearable though embarrassing. Now as I reach 50.. I find more significant symptoms developing, only to be ho-hahed by the doctor who says it’s just..”getting older”.

    1. gangadharan nair

      Approximately 90% of individuals with discoid lupus have only skin involvement as compared to more generalized involvement in systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). Discoid lupus occasionally (1–5%) develops into SLE.

    1. Paul Ding

      See a doctor.

      It could be Systemic Lupus Erythematosis. There’s no cure, but it’s dangerous not to treat.

      It could be rosacea. It didn’t used to be curable, but they seem to have some good treatments for it.

      Or it could easily be something else, given your vague description. You really need to see a doctor, in any case. Getting medical advice online, from people without credentials, is pretty foolish.

  3. champagne

    sodium deficiency and fluid on the lungs?
    what causes sodium deficiency and fluid on the lungs. also they have to have oxygen. they are on antibiotics to clear up an infection in the chest. they have loss of appetite and are sleeping all the time. they have an appointment for a bronchoscopy.
    it is a relation of mine that is sick and i am sorry i should not have referred to him as “they”.

    1. izzy

      Sodium deficiency
      This is rare because our dietary intake is so high, but levels of sodium in the body can become too low as a result of prolonged illness. Sodium levels can also become low due to dehydration or excessive or persistent sweating, which may occur during very hot weather or affect marathon runners, athletes in triathlons, or people with certain forms of kidney disease, such as acute kidney failure.

      Symptoms of a deficiency of sodium include headache, nausea and vomiting, muscle cramps, drowsiness, fainting, fatigue and possibly coma.

      Most commonly fluid accumulates on both lungs when the heart is failing to perform it’s task of pumping the blood around the body as well as it might, resulting in ‘back-pressure’ within the circulatory system. This leads to increasing breathlessness, most noticeable when lying down, and patients often wake up at night breathless and coughing

      Pneumonia (lung infection), tuberculosis, and tumours (cancers) may cause inflammation of the lung and pleura. This may cause fluid to build up into a pleural effusion.
      Some arthritic conditions may cause inflammation of the pleura in addition to joint inflammation. For example, pleural effusion is an uncommon complication of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE).
      Heart failure causes ‘back pressure’ in the blood vessels (veins) that take blood back to the heart. Some fluid may seep out of the blood vessels. Swelling of the legs with fluid is typical with heart failure, but a pleural effusion may also develop.
      A low level of protein in the blood also tends to allow fluid to seep out of the blood vessels. For example, cirrhosis of the liver and some kidney diseases may cause a low level of blood protein which allows a pleural effusion to develop.

      The poor man must have been, and still is, very ill. I hope he improves soon..
      When we are ill and don’t take in enough nourishment it causes all sorts of deficiencies. Ask his/your doctor for dietary recommendations.
      Good soup, thin bread butter or fingers of toast with honey or Marmite.
      Lightly scrambled egg -small portions of nourishing tempting foods.

  4. fellowhuman123

    a question about a breakup because of an illness ?
    My fiancée was recently diagnosed to have SLE (systemic lupus erythematosis) an autoimmune disease, I told her I don’t mind and its really ok with me and I want to get on with the marriage –which we planned to hold next September- . However she insists on breakup and she says she won’t be ready for any commitment esp. in her current health condition. – The doctor says the prognosis is good, and the disease will take a benign course,- I love her the way she is regardless her illness , but she have been very hard on me . I hate this whole scarification thing(from her part) I don’t care about the illness. Should I leave her if she keeps insisting or should I tolerate her regardless how hard she tries to send me away and do you think its only because the illness ?

    1. Becky W

      i have been with my boyfriend for 9 years. i have been Thur a double transplant and a leg amputation,and a lot of other things due to my diabetes. my boyfriend never left my side even when i asked him to. i kept saying it was not fair to him because of all my medical problems. i am happy to say that he has stayed with me nd we are happy and more in love now than we were in the begging. i know that he loves me no matter what crap might get in our way.

      your fiancee just needs time to deal with her new life or the new problems that has been recently brought to her attention. stay by her side and prove to her that you love her no matter what is involved with her health.

      the wedding vows say Thur sickness and health and good and bad. unfortunately you have some of the bad before you get married but you will show her that love stands the test of time.

      good luck with your decision. may god bless and keep her while she is trying to get use to her illness.may you and her have a long and happy life together.just remember that love will keep you together.

    1. yakkydoc

      What are your symptoms? This is positive in some auto immune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosis, etc. The condition is treated, usually with steroids. The disease continues with remissions and exacerbations.

  5. Miranda

    What is the disease, Kogenbyo, in English?
    My dad lives in Japan with my half brother and sister, and my sister has kogenbyo; my dad doesn’t know what it is in English. He says it’s something in the blood, and I don’t know what it is. Help!

    1. Darl G

      膠原病 【こうげんびょう】 is collagen disease.

      The immune system attacks many different organs, tissues, and cells of the body. Examples include: systemic lupus erythematosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis.

      In contrast to systemic autoimmune diseases, organ-specific or tissue-specific autoimmune diseases such as diabetes mellitus type 1, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis affect only one organ or tissue type. For example, diabetes mellitus affects the islet cells in the pancreas, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis affects the thyroid gland, multiple sclerosis affects the brain, and myasthemia gravis affects the muscles.

  6. li

    can lupus (SLE) kill?
    what is the death rate related to systemic lupus erythematosis? and at what age does death occur? can lupus eventually be classified as terminal?

    1. Eliza F

      I don’t think so… it’s just something you have to live with. All I know, is that you do experience discomfort with dealing with it, but it doesn’t result in death.

    1. AMBER D

      Higher amounts of protein may appear in our urine after strenuous exercise or while we are ill with a variety of common illnesses, like nephritis, diabetes, hypertension, Systemic lupus erythematosis, Amyloidosis, Malaria, Renal vein thrombosis, Pre-eclampsia, Subacute bacterial endocarditis, Shock, Heavy metal poisoning, Sarcoidosis, Myeloma, Hereditary fructose intolerance and Galactosemia among others.

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