Autism – what is Autism?

This is typically a disorder that can be detected in the age of three. It affects the normal development of the brain, and the child fail to develop the social and also the communicational skills. The cause of the autism is still unknown to us, though we can list a number of factors that can probably be the responsible for autism- chromosomal abnormalities, problem in the nervous system and generic problems are the main reason of autism. Apart from these there are also other suspected reasons for autism, they are- changes in the digestive tracks, lack of proper use of Vitamins and Minerals by the body, problem in proper diet, and also the sensitivity problems of the vaccines.

Some symptoms..

The researchers analyzed and stated that it affects the boys 3-4 times more than that of the young girls. The main symptom that one can found in the autism attacked child is that he/she is facing a major difficulty in playing with their friends, social communication, and interaction with others. They tend to be more sensitive in seeing, hearing, feeling, smelling, and tasting in compare to the other boy / girl of their age. Communicate by their gestures rather speaking. Lack of the development of language, fail to refer self in the approved manner. Cannot make friends, which throw them to the loneliness, and it is what they actually prefer. The autism treatment can now be done at much ease. The science advancement are becoming pronounced in the autism treatment – California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Oregon etc.

In recent times many treatments are being found that can prevent the autism. HBOT autism therapy is one of them. HBOT as we all know is the Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy. In short it is the chamber by which the patient can get the adequate oxygen artificially. It has been found that in the HBOT autism treatment, when the patient enters the chamber he feel an infusion of the readily accessible oxygen. The cells having the limited circulation also get saturated with the adequate supply of oxygen. Hyperbaric for Autism treatment has gained immense importance. As we have already mentioned that patient breaths the pure form of the oxygen inside the pressurized chamber. Generally it is seen that the insurance companies cover the HBOT , but most of them does not take the autism in the account. Hyperbaric for Autism treatment uses the sole theory that, the excess oxygen causes the reduction of the excess swelling in the tissues of the brain. It will stimulate the cerebral tissue and also will increase the blood flow through the brain. This is so done for the better performance of the brain. So, it can be said that the autism treatment – California, Nevada, Colorado, Utah, Oregon etc is heading for more development. It will generate a positive result bringing back smiles to the faces of the parents, whose kids are suffering from autism.

About the author:

Source: http://www.sooperarticles.com/health-fitness-articles/diseases-articles/hbot-best-autism-treatment-328791.html


vasculitis of the brain

23 thoughts on “Vasculitis Of The Brain

    1. ♥ lani s

      Hi cremedelacreme04,
      There are various medical conditions resulting to reduced ability to communicate.

      The first thing I would like to mention is AUTISM which can profoundly affect a person’s ability to communicate with others and to respond appropriately to environmental cues. Autism is characterized by impaired social interaction (as the hallmark feature), problems with verbal and nonverbal communication, and unusual, repetitive, or severely limited activities and interests. There is no cure for autism. Therapies and behavioral interventions are designed to remedy specific symptoms and can bring about substantial improvement.

      Impaired communication abilities could also be caused by many other factors such as the following:

      1. ALTERED MENTAL STATUS caused by the following:
      >>metabolic causes (i.e., hyper/hyponatremia, hyper/hypoglycemia, hypercalcemia, hyper/hypothyroidism, hypoxia/hypercapnea, hepatic encephalopathy, uremic encephalopathy, drug intoxication/withdrawal, etc.)
      >> structural lesions (primary or metastatic tumor, intracranial hemorrhage, infection)
      >>drug toxicity or overdose.
      >> cerebrovascular accident, transient ischemic attack, meningitis, encephalitis and many other factors affecting the brain.
      >> vasculitis, arrhythmias, heart failure, endocarditis, seizures, postictal state, hypertensive encephalopathy and many other else.
      >> psychiatric disease such as schizophrenia.

      2.DEMENTIA which refers to a loss of cognitive function due to changes in the brain caused by disease such as (Alzheimer’s disease) or trauma which largely affect the ability to communicate.
      3.PHYSICAL DISABILITIES such as deafness, aphasia as well as mental retardation.
      4. Etc.,etc., etc.

      Hope I gave an answer you are looking for.♥

  1. theshapeshifter

    can i take antibiotics for my teeth after accutane procedure ?
    will this effect my acne , because now i have a clearer skin due to accutane , i am afraid to take antibiotics for my bad tooth ? will my acne come back by taking antibiotics ?

    1. onlymatch4u

      Accutane is a highly controversial drug yet incredibly remains the industry standard for severe acne. Swiss drugmaker Roche Holding AG, manufacturer of Accutane, has spent most of this century in court defending itself against lawsuits from people whose health has been irreparably damaged by this menacing drug.

      Roche has lost six out of six lawsuits and was recently ordered to pay $25.16 million in damages to an Accutane user who developed inflammatory bowel disease as a result of the drug. Due to generic competition and the exorbitant cost of defending personal injury lawsuits, Roche stopped selling the drug in June 2009.

      However, the generic form of Accutane (isotretinoin) is equally deadly and remains available in the marketplace under the names Claravis, Sotret and Amnesteem. More than two million people have taken Accutane, despite the fact that it is known to cause depression, suicide, inflammatory bowel disease, and 100 percent guarantee of birth defects if taken by a pregnant woman.

      In 2004, brain scans showed that people taking Accutane suffer a 21 percent decrease in frontal brain activity, the part of the brain that plays a critical role in mood and social interaction. These brain changes may explain the depression, suicidal and aggressive behavior, and psychotic reactions reported by some Accutane users.

      Even official regulation policy acknowledges the real danger of Accutane. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has warned physicians and consumers about reports of “depression, psychosis, and rarely suicidal thoughts and actions” related to the use of Accutane. Patients using Accutane reported to the FDA that these psychological symptoms improved after stopping Accutane therapy, but worsened with re-start of the drug.

      In light of this evidence, the labeling of Accutane was changed to strengthen the warning about its risk for causing depression. Isotretinoin now has the strongest warning available for any drug category—and given a FDA Pregnancy Category X rating..

      If you are taking isotretinoin and become pregnant, you are virtually guaranteed to be damaging your baby. Accutane is extremely teratogenic (causing damage to a fetus).

      According to the Mayo Clinic: “Isotretinoin is associated with severe birth defects, so it can’t be taken by pregnant women or women who may become pregnant during the course of treatment or within several weeks of concluding treatment. In fact, the drug carries such serious potential side effects that women of reproductive age must participate in a Food and Drug Administration-approved monitoring program to receive a prescription for the drug.”

      In addition to teratogenic and psychological adverse effects, Accutane (isotretinoin) users have reported the following negative effects:

      Increased levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in your blood
      Headaches and brain swelling
      Damage to skin & mucous membrains
      Premature epiphyseal closure
      Development of inflammatory bowel disease
      Pancreatitis
      Increased liver enzyme levels and liver damage
      Disturbance of your central nervous system
      Hyperostosis (excessive bone growth) and demineralizaton
      Damage to your eyes including cataracts
      Heart attack & stroke
      Erectile dysfunction
      Siezures
      Neutropenia, agranulocytosis, & rhabodomyolysis
      Hearing impairment
      Allergic vasculitis

      If your doctor is prescribing this, he must either be a real HACK or have some other agenda for doing so. It is NOT a last resort. There are many root causes of acne you need to look at that can be very effective. Doctors “Treat symptoms” and do NOT practice real health, only “MAKE BELIEVE HEALTH” by prescribing drugs.

      Instead of trying to treat the symptoms like doctors typically do, why not get rid of the acne by getting to the root cause of it. Mixing antibiotics with any drug is NOT advised. Antibiotics are a big contributor to creating conditions that cause acne. On one hand the antibiotics kill bad bacteria on the skin, but also destroy 3/4 of your immune system in the process by killing the good bacteria in your gut that helps fight acne. This generally makes you dependent on antibiotics.

      good luck to you

  2. carmen sandiego

    can marijuana cause tiny strokes like the ones seen in patients with vasculitis?
    Little white dots were seen in the brain on an mri. The doctor said they were likely nothing to worry about because I had no other symptoms. However, I heard that certain drugs might affect this. Could marijuana be a cause or is it more likely to be the adderall my doctor prescribes?

    1. Ratty Rockstar

      No.
      Marijuana has no serious side affects like that. The worst it can do is tar up your lungs. But that’s a given. ANY and ALL smoke from ANYTHING is carcinogenic.

      It’s 10 times more like to have been caused by prescription meds. Which are not natural, and completly chemical and man made.

  3. b_quintana2001

    What is the pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis?
    I need to write a paper for my patho class and I have decided to write on bacterial meningitis and would like a clear simple answer to get me started. Anything would help! Thanks

    1. Exotic Beauty

      Meningitis is caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis (known as “meningococcal meningitis”) .
      In bacterial meningitis, bacteria reach the meninges by one of two main routes: through the bloodstream or through direct contact between the meninges and either the nasal cavity or the skin. In most cases, meningitis follows invasion of the bloodstream by organisms that live upon mucous surfaces such as the nasal cavity. This is often preceded further by viral infections, which break down the normal barrier provided by the mucous surfaces. Once bacteria have entered the bloodstream, they enter the subarachnoid space in places where the blood-brain barrier is vulnerable—such as the choroid plexus. In the newborn, 25% of those with bloodstream infections due to group B streptococci experience meningitis; in adults this phenomenon is more uncommon.[1] Direct contamination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may arise from indwelling devices, skull fractures, or infections of the nasopharynx or the nasal sinuses that have formed a tract with the subarachnoid space (see above); occasionally, congenital defects of the dura mater can be identified.

      The large-scale inflammation that occurs in the subarachnoid space during meningitis is not a direct result of bacterial infection but can rather largely be attributed to the response of the immune system to the entrance of bacteria into the central nervous system. When components of the bacterial cell membrane are identified by the immune system-related cells of the brain (astrocytes and microglia), they respond by releasing large amounts of cytokines, hormone-like mediators that recruit other immune cells and stimulate other tissues to participate in an immune response. The blood-brain barrier becomes more permeable, leading to “vasogenic” cerebral edema (swelling of the brain due to fluid leakage from blood vessels). Large numbers of white blood cells enter the CSF, causing inflammation of the meninges, and leading to “interstitial” edema (swelling due to fluid between the cells). In addition, the wall of the blood vessels themselves becomes inflamed (cerebral vasculitis), which leads to a decreased blood flow and a third type of edema, “cytotoxic” edema. The three different forms of cerebral edema all lead to an increased intracranial pressure; together with the lowered blood pressure often encountered in acute infection this means that it is harder for blood to enter the brain, and brain cells are deprived of oxygen and undergo apoptosis (automated cell death). Recently, there has been more evidence to suggest that a complicated network of cytokines, chemokines, proteolytic enzymes and oxidants are responsible for the entire inflammatory process which leads to necrosis (cell death). Genetic targeting and/or pharmacological blockages of these pathways may help to prevent diffuse (widespread) brain injury and therefore decrease mortality of meningitis.

      It is recognized that antibiotics may initially worsen the process outlined above, by increasing the amount of bacterial cell membrane products released through the destruction of bacteria. Particular treatments, such as the use of glucocorticoids, are aimed at dampening the immune system’s response to this phenomenon

    1. hello

      I have both Lupus and APS. I don’t have all of these symptoms but most of them.

      Each person with lupus has slightly different symptoms that can range from mild to severe and may come and go over time. However, some of the most common symptoms of lupus include painful or swollen joints (arthritis), unexplained fever, and extreme fatigue. A characteristic red skin rash-the so-called butterfly or malar rash-may appear across the nose and cheeks. Rashes may also occur on the face and ears, upper arms, shoulders, chest, and hands. Because many people with lupus are sensitive to sunlight (called photosensitivity), skin rashes often first develop or worsen after sun exposure.

      Common Symptoms of Lupus

      -Painful or swollen joints and muscle pain
      -Unexplained fever
      -Red rashes, most commonly on the face
      -Chest pain upon deep breathing
      -Unusual loss of hair
      -Pale or purple fingers or toes from cold or stress (Raynaud’s phenomenon)
      -Sensitivity to the sun
      -Swelling (edema) in legs or around eyes
      -Mouth ulcers
      -Swollen glands
      -Extreme fatigue

      Symptoms can range from mild to severe and may come and go over time.

      Other symptoms of lupus include chest pain, hair loss, anemia (a decrease in red blood cells), mouth ulcers, and pale or purple fingers and toes from cold and stress. Some people also experience headaches, dizziness, depression, confusion, or seizures. New symptoms may continue to appear years after the initial diagnosis, and different symptoms can occur at different times. In some people with lupus, only one system of the body, such as the skin or joints, is affected. Other people experience symptoms in many parts of their body. Just how seriously a body system is affected varies from person to person. The following systems in the body also can be affected by lupus.

      -Kidneys: Inflammation of the kidneys (nephritis) can impair their ability to get rid of waste products and other toxins from the body effectively. There is usually no pain associated with kidney involvement, although some patients may notice swelling in their ankles. Most often, the only indication of kidney disease is an abnormal urine or blood test. Because the kidneys are so important to overall health, lupus affecting the kidneys generally requires intensive drug treatment to prevent permanent damage.
      -Lungs: Some people with lupus develop pleuritis, an inflammation of the lining of the chest cavity that causes chest pain, particularly with breathing. Patients with lupus also may get pneumonia.
      -Central nervous system: In some patients, lupus affects the brain or central nervous system. This can cause headaches, dizziness, memory disturbances, vision problems, seizures, stroke, or changes in behavior.
      -Blood vessels: Blood vessels may become inflamed (vasculitis), affecting the way blood circulates through the body. The inflammation may be mild and may not require treatment or may be severe and require immediate attention.
      -Blood: People with lupus may develop anemia, leukopenia (a decreased number of white blood cells), or thrombocytopenia (a decrease in the number of platelets in the blood, which assist in clotting). Some people with lupus may have an increased risk for blood clots.
      -Heart: In some people with lupus, inflammation can occur in the heart itself (myocarditis and endocarditis) or the membrane that surrounds it (pericarditis), causing chest pains or other symptoms. Lupus can also increase the risk of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).

    1. imsety

      See your health care provider as soon as possible (neurologist), for consultation.
      Numb head or head numbness can be a result of nerve irritation, or a pinched nerve, especially in the neck and upper back region. The medical term used for this condition is head paresthesia. It is usually caused by stress and anxiety, and muscular problems in the neck, shoulder and upper back region. But, occasionally, head numbness can be an indicator of more serious conditions.

      Most of the times, head numbness id caused by trauma or injury, and stress to the muscles of the neck and the upper back region. Such a condition usually, puts pressure on the nerves that spread to the scalp. Generally, irritation of the cervical nerves and trigeminal nerves, spinal disorders, neurological diseases, infections, as well as herniated disks are associated with numb head. A few of the most common head numb causes:

      Multiple sclerosis
      Herpes zoster
      Meningitis
      Epilepsy
      Trigeminal neuralgia
      Stroke
      Spinal cord injury
      Apart from these, some other numb head causes are, brain tumor, vertebrobasilar circulatory disorder, hyperkalemia, vasculitis, migraine, spondylitis, Lyme disease, etc. See a doctor.
      I hope this helps you. And good luck.

    1. Robbie

      Hi!
      If you are bleeding, and your blood pressure is falling, a number of things happen. As blood volume falls, there is a release of adrenaline (epinepherine) which cause the blood vessels in your skinto constrict and your skin becomes pale, cold and you shiver. Your heart starts to beat faster to pump the remaining blood to vital organs such as your brain. Eventually perfusion to your kidney drops, and your kidneys stop functioning (the proper function of the kidney depends on adequate blood pressure, amongst other factors.) You become thirsty due to stimulation of your “thirst” center in an area of your brain called the hypothalamus. This is to try to get you to drink and hence increase your plasma volume. As more blood is lost, their is decrease of nutrient and oxygen transport to tissues includig the brain. You start to become combative, light headed (and then you may feel the “buzzing”) then lethargic and finally you fall into a coma. Coronary perfusion drops and your heart eventually goes into fibrilation and finally asystole (that is, it stops.) No more blood flow to the brain and heart, in 6 minutes you are dead.
      The buzzing or ringing in the ear is called “tinitus.” Oh, what a big word, eh? It can be cause by many different medical conditions, some such as bleeding or tumors can be life threatening others such as Ménière’s disease is relatively harmless. It can also be caused by drugs, tumors, vitamin deficiencies, anemia, autoimmune disease such as multiple scerlosis or various forms of vasculitis, head injury, etc.

    1. CGR941

      Apart from the usual, if I were to ive a differential diagnosis:

      It could be something neurological. Brain tumors, lesions, parasites in the brain, fungal infection in the brain, all could affect the brain function and stop autonomous functioning in the body like peristalsis. No peristalsis, no bowel function.

      Could be vasculitis, inflammation of the blood vessels around the intestines could cause them to shut down.

      Apart from that it could have been due to a stroke, or maybe an embolism in the bowel vessels. Do the doctors have nay idea why it has hapened?

      I need a more longer and precise family and patient history to be able to correctly diagnose.

      ~ M.R.D.

  4. Jake

    Can embryonic stem cells repair brain damages?
    My friend got in a car accident and now is in a nursing home, his right or left side of the brain is damage, can embryonic stem cells repair brain damages? i really want my friend to get well. He’s only 21 years old.

  5. S. B.

    Does cocaine affect the cough reflex?
    Is it possible for a person, under the influence of cocaine & alcohol, to inhale fluid from the mouth totally into the lungs, stay conscious, verbalize and physically require restraint, then expire 30 mins. later, due to fluid in the lungs?

    1. lilac

      Alcohol and cocaine both depresses the respiratory drive and the person is prone to aspiration (getting food or fluid into the lungs). Cocaine also cause involuntary muscle contractions as well as myocardial infarction ( a heart attack). This is a simplified excerpt from emedicine which shows you that cocaine causes the following:

      A.Central nervous system and neuromuscular system
      1. Headache: Cocaine use commonly results in headaches. Cocaine may trigger migraine headaches, but, most importantly, the headache may be secondary to complications of cocaine use such as strokes, subarachnoid hemorrhage, meningitis, brain abscess, and vasculitis.

      2.Seizures: Cocaine-related seizures usually are due to a hyperadrenergic state and usually occur within 90 minutes of drug use but have been delayed for as long as 12 hours.

      3.Abnormal movements: A number of abnormal movement disorders have been observed with cocaine use. Patients may present with torticollis, trismus, dystonic reactions, and choreiform movements (“crack dancing”). While most of these are benign, abnormal contractions of the vocal cords and larynx result in laryngospasm, which may be severe enough to cause airway obstruction and suffocation.

      4. Nausea and vomiting: Nausea and vomiting commonly are due to stimulation of the vomiting center of the brain and usually are self-limited.

      5.Anxiety: Anxiety and restlessness are common manifestations of cocaine toxicity and are due to the sympathomimetic effect of cocaine on the brain.

      B.Cardiac
      1.Chest pain: Chest pain is the most frequent cocaine-related complaint and constitutes approximately 40% of cocaine-related emergency department visits. Chest pain following cocaine use may be due to a number of causes, including those directly attributable to the effects of cocaine, such as myocardial infarction and aortic dissection, and causes due to complications of the route of administration. For example, inhalation of cocaine, resulting in pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax, and intravenous injection, resulting in septic emboli, may all present with chest pain and other cardiopulmonary symptoms.
      Cocaine-associated myocardial infarction may occur in as many as 31% of patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain following cocaine use. The pain is described as substernal pressurelike discomfort and is associated with shortness of breath and diaphoresis. Patients who are affected usually are young males (aged 19-40 y) who smoke cigarettes and repetitively use cocaine.

      C. Respiratory: Shortness of breath, like chest pain, is a frequent complaint bringing patients using cocaine to the emergency department and may be due to a number of cardiopulmonary processes. Cocaine smoking is associated with acute exacerbations of asthma, bronchiolitis obliterans, cardiogenic and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary vascular hypertension, pulmonary hemorrhage, thermal injury to the airway, pneumothorax, and significant impairment of the diffusing capacity of the lung. Shortness of breath also may be due to cocaine-induced laryngospasm. Inhalation of cocaine may result in pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax.

      D.Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain following cocaine use should raise suspicion of ischemic bowel; bowel perforation; and, in the smuggler, bowel obstruction. .

      E. Skeletal muscle: Cocaine use can lead to rhabdomyolysis, which may or may not be associated with hyperthermia, seizures, or agitation.

  6. Anonymous

    What do all the awareness ribbons represent?
    I want to know
    Green
    white
    yellow
    orange
    black/grey
    purple
    red
    ALL COLORS! what do they stand for?

    1. Courtney

      Green:
      * Bipolar disorder awareness and support
      * Cerebral Palsy awareness and support
      * Gastroschisis
      * Depression
      * Aging Research awareness
      * Lyme Disease
      * Organ transplantation and donation awareness
      * Kidney Cancer aka Renal Cell Carcinoma Awareness
      * Environmental protection
      * Mitochondrial disease awareness
      * Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections
      * Pedestrian Safety

      White
      * Adoption Awareness
      * Methamphetamine Abuse Awareness
      * Forgiveness
      * Safe Childbirth & Motherhood
      * Multiple Hereditary Exostoses
      * Male on female violence
      * Lung Cancer (sometimes pearl-colored)

      Yellow
      * Bone Cancer / Osteosarcoma
      * American soldiers (“support our troops”)
      * Suicide awareness and prevention
      * Endometriosis awareness
      * Bladder Cancer
      * Genocide awareness

      Orange
      * Self-injury awareness
      * Energy awareness in Nigeria
      * Animal protection awareness
      * Leukemia Awareness
      * Multiple Sclerosis awareness
      * Kidney cancer survivorship and awareness
      * ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
      * CPRS (Complex Regional Pain Syndrom)

      Black
      * Mourning and remembrance of the Virginia Tech massacre
      * Melanoma awareness

      Grey
      * Mental illness awareness
      * Borderline personality disorder awareness
      * Diabetes awareness
      * Brain cancer awareness
      * Asthma awareness

      Purple
      * Spirit Day and victims of homophobia
      * crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
      * Horse Slaughter Prevention and Awareness
      * Chiari Malformation
      * Sarcoidosis
      * Lupus
      * Fibromyalgia
      * Show religious tolerance
      * Promoting remembrance and awareness of violence against women
      * Domestic violence awareness
      * Childhood stroke awareness
      * Cystic fibrosis awareness
      * Alzheimer’s disease awareness
      * Pancreatic cancer awareness

      Red
      * Heart Disease/Heart Attack
      * AIDS awareness
      * Substance abuse awareness (Red Ribbon Week is commonly held in American schools)
      * Vasculitis awareness

      I would recommend checking out the page. There are many color variations, too.

  7. migamw

    Serious questions about Hepatitis C and Seizures,please help?
    I have a friend who just found out he has Hep.C.The dr. says he has severe liver damage.He has started having seizures and they are getting worse and worse.Even with meds.To the point that now he even stops breathing when he has them.The dr. did an MRI and EEG and found nothing wrong even though he has seizures during both.He is saying maybe the seizures are linked to the liver damage.Does anyone know if this is possible?Please help.Thanks in advance.

    1. Stephanie

      yes, hcv can cause seizures. but so can other things that a person does when they have hcv infection, like: drinking alcohol,over the counter meds, prescription meds, taking herbs, not eating right…..
      with severe liver damage and/or hepatitis c, a lot depends on lifestyle.

      the liver is not filtering toxins out of the body as well as it should, these toxins enter the bbb (blood brain barrier) and can cause many issues related to the brain. it is not uncommon to see patients with seizures in those with hcv infection. what is uncommon is many doctors dont understand the connection….sounds like this doc knows what he’s talking about. follow up and go from there.

      seizures can be seen in those with little or no liver damage and those with severe liver damage….the nature of hcv is one may never know how the individuals body will respond to hcv itself.

      hugs and best of luck.

      **Edited to give Patient Examples**
      Patient 1, a 36-year old woman, was in otherwise good health when left parietal cerebral infarction developed, and she was found to have narrowing of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery siphon, anterior cerebral artery A1. and middle cerebral artery M 1 segments bilaterally. Subsequent evaluation revealed abnormal liver enzymes, mixed cryoglobulinemia (type Ill), hypocomplementemia and a high positive test result for rheumatoid factor. The second patient was a 35 year old woman who was referred to Mayo Clinic Rochester because of headaches and seizures. She had a history of nephritis (at age 12 years), treatment with glucocorticoids, and subsequent development of avascular necrosis of both hips. When she was 31 years old, purpura caused by vasculitis developed, and she subsequently had intermittent arthralgias. When she was 33 years old, type II mixed cryoglobulinemia was diagnosed, and she was treated with prednisone. A kidney biopsy specimen showed mesangial hypercellularity. Azathioprine was added to the therapeutic regimen because of recurrent vasculitic skin lesions. The researchers found that ischemic encephalopathy developed about the time of treatment with plasmapheresis or institution of interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) treatment (or both). Both women were found to have HCV infection using polymerase chain reaction detection of hepatitis C virus RNA. So, there IS a clear relationship between Cryoglobulinemia-associated Nephritis and HCV infection. (just citing a couple examples…there are many other patient examples) So print this one out! :O)

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